2017 SCJAS Meeting Program

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Junior Academy (SCJAS General Meeting Schedule)

SCJAS Oral Presentation Sessions  (Click below for specific sessions)

Biochemistry / Mentored

Biochemistry / Non-Mentored

Botany / Mentored

Botany / Non-Mentored

Cell and Molecular Biology / Mentored

Chemistry / Mentored

Chemistry / Non-Mentored

Computer Science / Mentored

Computer Science / Non-Mentored

Consumer Science / Mentored

Consumer Science / Non-Mentored

Engineering / Mentored

Engineering / Non-Mentored

Environmental Science / Mentored

Environmental Science / Non-Mentored

Mathematics / Mentored

Mathematics / Non-Mentored

Microbiology / Mentored

Microbiology / Non-Mentored

Physics / Mentored

Physics / Non-Mentored

Physiology and Health / Mentored

Physiology and Health / Non-Mentored

Psychology and Sociology / Mentored

Psychology and Sociology/ Non-Mentored I

Psychology and Sociology/ Non-Mentored II

Zoology / Mentored

Zoology / Non-Mentored

SCJAS Abstracts (Alphabetical by first author)

 

 

 

SOUTH CAROLINA JUNIOR ACADEMY OF SCIENCE SCHEDULE OF EVENTS

 

7:30 AM - 11:00 AM               SCJAS Registration                Wall Building (atrium)

7:30 AM – 9:00 AM                   Continental Breakfast                   Wall Building near
                                                                                                            registration table

8:30 AM – 10:30 AM              SCJAS Oral Session I               Wall Building

                                                   See SCJAS oral session listing for details & room numbers

10:30 AM – 10:45 AM            Break

10:45 AM – 12:30 PM            SCJAS Oral Session II              Wall Building

                                                   See SCJAS oral session listing for details & room numbers

 [10:30 AM – 12:30 PM]        SCAS Poster Session                                                  

Junior Academy members are encouraged to visit SCAS posters

12:00 PM – 1:30 PM              Lunch                                             Hicks Dining Hall

                                                   Ticket is in your badge holder

1:30 PM– 2:30 PM                  Plenary Session                        Jackson Student Union (in the Theater)

2:45 PM – 3:45 PM                 Afternoon SCJAS Activities & Workshops

Meet in atrium - front of Wall Building

Wall 119                        Investigating Hidden Biodiversity: Anuran acoustics as a case study Melissa Pilgrim, PhD (USC Upstate)

Wall 119                        Interactive visual neuroscience: how neurons in the brain generate perception  Phillip O’Herron PhD (MUSC)

Wall 209                        Journey to the center of the Atom Bill Wabbersen and Jon Guy (Savannah River Site)

Atrium                          Campus/Sciences tour with Coastal Students/Science Ambassadors

4:00 PM                                    SCJAS Awards Ceremony      Jackson Student Union (in the Theater)


 

SCJAS 2017 ANNUAL MEETING ORAL PRESENTATIONS
COASTAL CAROLINA UNIVERSITY, MARCH 25, 2017

 

Biochemistry / Mentored Wall 118

 

8:30AM       Nina Daneshvar, Dutch Fork High School

                  THE EFFECTS OF TENSION, CURVATURE, & LIPID DIFFUSION ON THE ENRICHMENT OF RAS PROTEINS IN THE CELL MEMBRANE

 

8:45AM       Katrina Bynum, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  TEMPORAL RELEASE DYNAMICS OF VARIOUS TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE LIPOSOME FORMULATION

 

9:00AM       Harrison Howell, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  GENERATION OF A YEAST OVEREXPRESSION PLASMID FOR PURIFICATION OF THE IRON TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AFT2

 

9:15AM       Sunjay Jayaram, Dutch Fork High School

                  THE EFFECTS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ON THE PRODUCTION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN MCF-7 CELLS

 

9:30AM       Tyreek Jenkins, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF D-AMINO ACID SUBSTITUTED CYCLIC PEPTIDE INHIBITORS OF LYSINE SPECIFIC DEMETHYLASE 1

 

9:45AM       Eric Vo, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  THE ROLE OF ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE 2 IN LIVER SICHEMIA/REPERFUSION INJURY

 

10:00AM     Sarah Davis, Home School

                  INHIBITION OF TBK1 AND IKKΕ BY AMLEXANOX SYNERGIZES WITH BORTEZOMIB TO REDUCE MYELOMA CELL GROWTH

 

Biochemistry / Non-Mentored Wall 118

 

10:45AM     Kaouri Marie Alipio, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LIGHT CONDITIONS ON CHLORELLA SP. GROWTH AND LIPID PRODUCTION

 

11:00AM     Ryan Trinter, Chapin High School

                  EFFECT OF LAKE DEPTH ON BIOELECTRICAL POTENTIAL OF SEDIMENTS IN MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS

 

11:15AM     Vikram Kumar, Spring Valley High School

                  A COMPARISON OF THE TOTAL POLYPHENOLS IN DAUCUS CAROTA, CYANOCOCCUS, CITRUS SINENSIS, CITRUS LIMON, ACTINIDIA DELICIOSA, AND MANGIFERA INDICA

 

11:30AM     Riley Haywood and Noah Schumacher, Heathwood Hall

                  THE DIFFERENCE IN AMOUNT OF ETHANOL PRODUCED BY PORTOBELLO AND SHIITAKE MUSHROOM CELLULOSE

 

11:45AM     Kayla O'Grady, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF COPPER(II) SULFATE PENTAHYDRATE ON THE PRODUCTION OF THE ETHYLENE HORMONE ON CUCURBITA PEPO

 

12:00PM     Noah Rowell, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  OPTIMIZATION THE PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL

 

Botany / Mentored Wall 211

 

11:30AM     Samantha Czwalina, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  USING RACE PROTOCOL TO GET FULL LENGTH GENE FRAGMENTS OF CANDIDATE GENES SELECTED IN PASPALUM VAGINATUM AND ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA

 

Botany / Non-Mentored Wall 211

 

11:45AM     Wenlan He, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COLOR LIGHT AFFECT THE GROWTH OF PLANTS.

 

12:00PM     Hailey Nicks, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CAFFINE ON THE GROWTH OF WISCONSIN FAST PLANTS

 

12:15PM     Isaac Lee, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN ON THE GROWTH OF LEMNA MINOR

 

Cell and Molecular Biology / Mentored Wall 209

 

9:00AM       Maegan Albert, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  MODULATION OF LYMPHOMA CELL SURVIVAL AND ANTIGEN PRESENTATION BY INORGANIC ARSENIC

 

9:15AM       Julia Altman, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  EPIGENETIC CHANGE EFFECTS ON DIFFERENTIATED EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO IN MICE

 

9:30AM       Claire Benson, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  CLONING OF LPAR2 VARIANT (CHEST973J21) FOR FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS

 

9:45AM       Abbie Bowman, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  IDENTIFYING MARKERS OF STEM CELL DIFFERENTIATION THROUGH QPCR QUANTIFICATION

 

10:00AM     Pierce Carrouth, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM LIF EXPOSURE ON MYOTUBE DIAMETER AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

 

10:15AM     Eric Chen, Dutch Fork High School

                  THE EFFECT OF STROMAL CELLS ON TUMOR CELL GROWTH UNDER HYPOXIA

 

10:30AM     BREAK

 

10:45AM     Alexander Giep, Dorman High School

                  EFFECTS OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM ON CELL MIGRATION

 

11:00AM     David Kindervater, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  THE EFFECT OF POLYINOSINIC:POLYCYTIDILIC ACID ON THE HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL CYCLE

 

11:15AM     Danielle McLaughlin, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  E4 DOMAINS AND THEIR ANTI-FIBROTIC NATURE

 

11:30AM     Shakthika Saravanan, Spring Valley High School

                  EXPLORING THE ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF PANAX QUINQUEFOLIUS AND ITS COMPONENTS

 

11:45AM     Dola Thota, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  STUDY OF THE AGGREGATION OF AMYLOID-BETA 40 & 42 IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

 

12:00PM     Paige Swanson, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  THE GENETIC AND DEVELOPMENTAL ROLES OF DZIP1 ON MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE

 

12:15PM     Winter Widdifield, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  IDENTIFYING REGIONS OF THE CXCR3 PROMOTOR REQUIRED FOR ACTIVATION BY FLI1 IN STIMULATED T-CELLS

 

Chemistry / Mentored Wall 226

 

9:00AM       Natalie Duprez, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  COMPARING INTERACTION ENERGIES OF WATER AND NH<SUB>2</SUB> ADSORBATE ACROSS VARYING COVERAGES

 

9:15AM       Benjamin Gray, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  CONDUCTIVITY OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL CATHODE MATERIALS

 

9:30AM       Jamaal Jacobs, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE WITH PERSISTENT MICELLE TEMPLATE (PMT)

 

9:45AM       Julia Ladson, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  THE POLYMERIZATION OF N-VINYLPYRROLIDONE IN PHENYLETHYLENE BIS-UREA MACROCYCLES

 

10:00AM     Aryana Mattmann, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  NOX EMISSION REDUCTION IN POWER PLANTS

 

10:15AM     Lam Nguyen, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  MEASUREMENT OF THE FLORY HUGGINS INTERACTION PARAMETER OF PHA-PS AND PHA-PLA

 

10:30AM     BREAK

 

10:45AM     Jack Orlandi, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  SYNTHESIS AND INVESTIGATION OF THE NAPHTHALENE BIS-UREA MACROCYCLE

 

11:00AM     MaryGrace Rainsford, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  THE SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CORANNULENE-BASED METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS

 

11:15AM     Caleb Simpson, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  DETERMINING THE DEGRADATION ALONG THE LENGTH OF QUARTER INCH POLYESTER URETHANE MAGNETIC TAPES USING ATR FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY

 

11:30AM     Hosam Arammash, Spring Valley High School

                  COMPARING DIFFERENT METHODS OF OBTAINING GRAPHENE FROM GRAPHITE

 

11:45AM     Top Lee, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  VERIFYING HIGH-THROUGHPUT METHODS FOR DETERMINING MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF UV CURED POLYMERS

 

Chemistry / Non-Mentored Wall 226

 

12:00PM     Elizabeth Dillon, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON ZINC LEACHING FROM RUBBER TIRE MULCH

 

12:15PM     Christopher Kong, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF ZEOLITES ON THE PERCENT TRANSMITTANCE OF LEAD CONTAMINATED WATER

 

Computer Science / Mentored Wall 119

 

9:00AM       Brennora Cameron, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  EXPLORING VIRTUAL BRANCHING STORIES FOR VR HEADSET GAMING USING UNITY ASSETS AND C# SCRIPTS

 

9:15AM       Steven McDade, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  CONVERTING A JAVA ASG TO A GENERAL ASG

 

9:30AM       Hailey Mollica, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  DIGITAL VILLAGES DISCOVERABLE: CONCEPTUALIZING, DESIGNING, AND IMPLEMENTING THE USER-INTERFACE OF A CROWD-SOURCED, MEDIA-UPLOAD,IOS APPLICATION

 

9:45AM       Jeffrey Russell, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  FILE COMPRESSION USING HUFFMAN CODING WITH VARIOUS BIT LENGTHS

 

10:00AM     Jacob Sargent, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  DIGITAL VILLAGES: CREATING A STABLE BACK-END PROGRAM FOR A CROWDSOURCED IMAGE APPLICATION

 

10:15AM     Victoria Young, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  USING AN EYE TRACKER TO DETERMINE WHETHER INSTRUCTIONS ARE UNDERSTOOD BY THE USER

 

10:30AM     BREAK

 

10:45AM     Andrew Zheng, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  DETERMING THE COMPLEXITY OF A PROGRAM TO AID PROGRAMMING

 

11:00AM     Thomas McLean, Spring Valley High School

                  THE MODELLING OF INDUSTRIAL CONTAMINANT SPILLAGE USING HYDRODYNAMICS IN CONJUNCTION WITH STEREOPHOTOGRAMMETRY

 

11:15AM     David Schmitt, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  SIZE MINIMIZING STRATEGIES FOR REMOVING OF REDUNDANT EXPRESSIONS FROM A SUPERSET

 

11:30AM     Elaine Patterson, Spring Valley High School

                  MODELLING HUMAN ACTIVITY THROUGH STRUCTURAL VIBRATIONS WITH ALTERNATE COMPUTATIONAL DEVICES TO INCREASE COST EFFICIENCY

 

Computer Science / Non-Mentored Wall 119

 

11:45AM     Elizabeth Bickel, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF A MOBILE APPLICATION ON FIRE SAFETY EDUCATION

 

12:00PM     Chris Lou, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS ON BLOCKING CELL PHONE SIGNAL

 

12:15PM     Parker Davis, Chapin High School

                  THE CREATION OF AN APPLICATION ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF SENSORY OVERLOAD OCCURRENCES

 

Consumer Science / Mentored Wall 210

 

8:30AM       Matthew Beymer and Graycen Hensley, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  CHALLENGES FACED BY CYBER SECURITY ASSETS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA

 

8:45AM       Wells Carter, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC ART IN CULTURAL DISTRICTS: RESULTS OF A SURVEY IN THE CONGAREE-VISTA

 

9:00AM       Ethan Chan, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  AN ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL POTENTIAL OF THE BIG SHORT

 

9:15AM       Samuel Floyd, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  VARIABLE TOLLING FOR EXTERNALITY REDUCTION IN COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA TRAFFIC

 

9:30AM       Daniel Morris, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  INCREASING AFRICAN AMERICAN TOURISM IN SOUTH CAROLINA

 

9:45AM       Dennis Perea, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  COMPARISON OF AUTOMATIC VERSUS HAND CODING TECHNIQUES IN EYE TRACKING SOFTWARE

 

10:00AM     Caleb Rummel, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  TRANSFER ENTORPY WITHIN THE NASDAQ STOCK EXCHANGE

 

10:15AM     Casey Carter, Spring Valley High School

                  ENHANCING THE BIOMECHANICAL DESIGN OF THE FOOTBALL HELMET (CONCUSSION PREVENTION) PT. 2

 

Consumer Science / Non-Mentored Wall 210

 

10:45AM     Mary Martha Beard and Julia Faulds, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT DIFFERENT FLAVORS OF ICE CREAM HAVE ON THEIR MELTING RATE

 

11:00AM     Moji Awe, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERING PROMOTIONAL METHODS ON RECYCLING BEHAVIOR

 

11:15AM     Allison Hall, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF THE NUMBER OF TIMES THE BATTERY IS CHARGED ON HOW LONG THE CHARGE LASTS

 

11:30AM     Jasmine Marie Flora, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF LED LIGHTING ON THE DETERIORATION OF OIL PAINT

 

11:45AM     Ava Rosenbaum and Molly Caballero, Heathwood Hall

                  HOW DO TRAITS DIFFER BETWEEN GMO AND ORGANIC AAPLES, POTATOES, AND CORN

 

12:00PM     Katie Chin, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  DISASTER-READY KIT

 

12:15PM     Hayden Spencer, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  MITIGATING THE URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECT BY UTILIZING COOL ROOFING

 

12:30PM     Kate Nassab, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF CALORIC LABELING ON CONSUMERS CALORIE INTAKE

 

Engineering / Mentored Wall 223

 

8:30AM       Saulo Arias Hernández, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  PROCESSING OF MISCIBLE THERMOSET BLEND WITH IMPROVED MECHANICAL AND WEAR BEHAVIOR

 

8:45AM       Audrey Wang, Dutch Fork High School

                  THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PHOTON-BASED VELOCIMETER TO STUDY TRANSPORT PHENOMENA OF TUMOR CELLS

 

9:00AM       Chris Bodkin, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  USING ULTRASONIC WAVES TO DETERMINE BOND QUALITY BETWEEN ALUMINUM PLATES

 

9:15AM       Nikki Bregman, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  AUTONOMOUS COURSE NAVIGATION BY HIGH-SPEED 1/10 SCALE RACECARS USING LIDAR AND PASSIVE STEREO CAMERA

 

9:30AM       Dennis Daly, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  USING NON-TRADITIONAL RESOURCES TO BUILD TEMPORARY HOUSING FOR THE HOMELESS

 

9:45AM       Chloe Harris, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  IROBOT ROOMBA AND ARDUINO AS AN ACCELERATED LEARNING PLATFORM FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY PRINCIPLES

 

10:00AM     Faisal Lachab, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  RAPID PROTOTYPING OF COMPACT BONE OSTEONS

 

10:15AM     Weston Light, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  CAPABILITY OF COLLABORATIVE ROBOTS IN AN INDUSTRIAL PROCESS

 

10:30AM     BREAK

 

10:45AM     Evan Livingston, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  SYNTHESIS OF WEAR RESISTANT POLYMERS WITH ENHANCED MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

 

11:00AM     Vanessa Madrid, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  CO2 SEPARATION AND DRY METHANE REFORMING FOR SYNTHESIS SYNGAS BY A MECC MEMBRANE REACTOR

 

11:15AM     Abson Madola, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  3D BIOFABRICATION OF CANCER CELLS AND THE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FISNAR I&J7100

 

11:30AM     Shelby Rader, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PGG LOADED POLYMER BASED VESSEL GRAFT

 

11:45AM     Jacob Rains, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  DISPARITY BETWEEN BUILD TIME ESTIMATION AND ACTUAL PRINT TIME IN THE PROJET MJP 3600 PRINTER SERIES

 

12:00PM     Wes Robinson, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  EFFECTS OF VARIABLE PRESSURE ON NEWTONIAN AND NON-NEWTONIAN MICROFLUIDIC FLOW

 

12:15PM     William Schmidt, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  USING FIBER BRAGG GRATINGS TO DETECT DAMAGE IN METAL PLATES

 

12:30PM     LUNCH BREAK

 

1:30PM       Alexander Spitzer, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  THE EFFECTS OF JOULE HEATING ON ELECTRIC-DRIVEN MICROFLUIDIC FLOW

 

1:45PM       Janelle Taliaferro, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  CHARACTERIZATION OF PROXPA, HST, AND TPU FOR USE IN 3D PRINTING WITH SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING (SLS) MACHINES

 

2:00PM       Nathan Ulmer, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  THE EFFECTS OF ETHANOL CONCENTRATION ON CONTACT ANGLE

 

2:15PM       Anjali Mohan and Ian Wilde, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  CHARACTERIZING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JSC MARS-1A MARTIAN SOIL SIMULANTS

 

Engineering / Non-Mentored Wall 225

 

9:00AM       Nithin Saravanapandian, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF COMPOUND AND METALLIC COATINGS OF GRAPHITE, SILVER, TIN OXIDEM AND COPPER ON THE ABILITY OF A PIEZOELECTRIC DISC TO BOOST ITS PRODUCTION OF PIEZOELECTRICITY AFTER TENSILE FAILURE

 

9:15AM       Paul Dubberly, Spring Valley High School

                  THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIQUID ELECTRODE BATTERIES WITH AQUEOUS LITHIUM CARBONATE

 

9:30AM       Evan Barker, Luke Gabel, and DeBose Tyler, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF THE BICYCLE SAFETY DEVICE ON HOW FAR AWAY A CYCLIST CAN DETECT A CAR BEHIND THEM.

 

9:45AM       Christopher Bristow, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  DEVELOPING A HUMAN POWERED ELECTRIC BICYCLE

 

10:00AM     Cody Foster, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE ELECTRICAL OUTPUT OF A THERMOELECTRIC ARMBAND

 

10:15AM     Clay Mitchell, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE, AND HUMIDITY ON EMF SIGNALS

 

10:30AM     BREAK

 

10:45AM     Royce Frye, Spring Valley High School

                  TESTING THE ABILITY OF A PROSTHETIC TO RESIST CHANGE IN POSITION AND HANDLE WEIGHT

 

11:00AM     Joshua Keller, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS UTILIZING A COOLER

 

11:15AM     Ishita Kapoor, Spring Valley High School

                  EXPLORING POSSIBILITIES OF AN ADAPTIVE NEBULIZER SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED AND EFFICIENT AEROSOL THERAPY: A COMPREHENSIVE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

 

11:30AM     Brogan Brown, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  BREAST CANCER RADIATION BRA

 

Environmental Science / Mentored Wall 205

 

9:30AM       Ivey Li, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  FECAL SOURCE TRACKING AT LITTLE CANE CREEK AND CANE CREEK

 

9:45AM       Jillian Marlowe, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF TRAFFIC ON THE VOCALIZATION OF LITHOBATES CATESBEIANUS AND LITHOBATES CLAMITANS

 

10:00AM     Brandon Marrone, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  EFFECTS OF CYSTEINE ON THE AGGREGATION AND DISSOLUTION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES

 

Environmental Science / Non-Mentored Wall 206

 

8:30AM       Isaac Vardi, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  DIESEL EMISSIONS

 

8:45AM       Madeline Ashcraft, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF THE LOVES TRUCK STOP ON THE TEMPERATURE, PH, MERCURY, DISSOLVED OXYGEN, AND TURBIDITY ON THE NEARBY WETLANDS

 

9:00AM       Sreya Varanasi, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF COPPER (LL) SULFATE AND IRON (II) SULFATE ON GAS PRODUCTION, ABSORBANCE, AND PH OF CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII

 

9:15AM       Matt Hooker, Chapin High School

                  IMPACT OF ENVIORNMENTAL EDUCATION ON COMPOST LEVELS AND LANDFILL WASTE REDUCTION AT CHAPIN HIGH SCHOOL

 

9:30AM       Townsend Christian and Audrey Osborne, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECTS OF SOIL CONTENT ON THE DECOMPOSITION OF A NAPKIN

 

9:45AM       Sarayu Das, Spring Valley High School

                  A NOVEL TECHNIQUE TO PURIFY WATER USING THE COAGULANT PROPERTIES OF MORINGA OLEIFERA TO FILTER PHARMACEUTICALS, HEAVY METALS, AND HERBICIDES FROM CONTAMINATED WATER SOURCES.

 

10:00AM     Kathleen Powers, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF GREYWATER ON THE GROWTH OF LEPIDIUM SATIVUM AND SOIL QUALITY

 

10:15AM     Anne Lobitz, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF NASTUTIUM OFFICINALE ON THE PREVENTION OF UNOXIDIZED SHEET STEEL CORROSION

 

10:30AM     BREAK

 

10:45AM     Pranav Bellukutty, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON THE GROWTH OF THE PHYTOPLANKTON AMPHIDINIUM

 

11:00AM     Keshav Nair, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF CLINOTPITOLITE VS. DICYIANDIAMIDE ON NITRATE LEACHING FROM SILT LOAM SOIL

 

11:15AM     Maeghan Ainsworth, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  IMPROVING EVACUATED TUBES

 

11:30AM     Zachary Kochert, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  METHANE PRODUCTION FROM MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS

 

11:45AM     Jasdeep Singh, Spring Valley High School

                  THE BIODEGRADATION OF POLYETHYLENE FOAM VIA TENEBRIO

 

12:00PM     Bryan Tran, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  WATER FILTRATION SYSTEM

 

12:15PM     Kierson Sutton, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF PETROLEUM BASED OILS ON THE AMOUNT OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN WATER

 

12:30PM     LUNCH BREAK

 

1:30PM       Kristina Trifonova, Spring Valley High School

                  ASSESSING THE ADSORPTION CAPACITIES OF HYPERACCUMULATOR BIOCHARS COMPARED TO WOOD WASTE BIOCHAR

 

1:45PM       Sreeja Varanasi, Spring Valley High School

                  AN ACUTE TOXICITY TEST ON THE EFFECT OF VARYING CONCENTRATIONS OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES ON DAPHNIA MAGNA AND ARTEMIA SALINA

 

2:00PM       Vinita Cheepurupalli, Spring Valley High School

                  NOVEL MOSQUITO CONTROL: A NATURAL APPROACH TO REDUCING AND REPELLING MOSQUITO POPULATIONS

 

2:15PM       Mikaila Widener, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECTS OF GLYPHOSATE VERSUS SPINOSAD ON THE NITRATE CONCENTRATION IN THE SOIL

 

Mathematics / Mentored Wall 205

 

10:45AM     Max Land, Dutch Fork High School

                  UPPER BOUND ON THE BURNING NUMBER OF GRAPHS

 

11:00AM     Jacob Folks, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  FINDING THE SPLITTING NUMBERS OF TILES

 

11:15AM     Sydney Miyasaki, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  SPLITTABLE COVERINGS OF THE INTEGERS

 

Mathematics / Non-Mentored Wall 205

 

11:30AM     Caleb Taylor, Chapin High School

                  THE IMPACT OF ARITHMETIC SKILLS ON THE ABILITY TO SOLVE SIMPLE ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS

 

Microbiology / Mentored Wall 224

 

11:00AM     Timothy Christie, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  CHARACTERIZATION AND LOCALIZATION OF TRAB AND TRAJ THROUGH FLUORESCENCE STUDIES

 

11:15AM     Gabriel Paradise, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  ANALYSIS OF THE HYPERACTIVITY OF A MUTANT MPING TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENT

 

11:30AM     Samah Malik, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  OPTIMIZATION OF BIVECTOR SYSTEMS FOR EXPORT OF ISOPRENOIDS IN BIOFUEL APPLICATIONS

 

11:45AM     Nitya Muppala, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  MINIMAL INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION OF CHITOSAN

 

12:00PM     Jacob Stokes, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  CHANGES IN MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLE SIZE IN DIFFERENT CELL GROWTH MEDIA

 

12:15PM     Aman Pitalia, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS (BENZOIC ACID) ON THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF GRAM-POSITIVE AND GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA EXPOSED TO ANTIBIOTICS.

 

Microbiology / Non-Mentored Wall 224

 

8:30AM       Adam Abdulrahman, Chapin High School

                  EFFECT OF THICKNESS OF COPPER PLATING ON ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES AGAINST S. AUREUS

 

8:45AM       Roann Abdeladl, Greenville Technical Charter High School

                  DETERMINING THE AMOUNTS OF BACTERIA PRESENT IN MEAT POST VARIOUS FORMS OF COOKING AND THAWING

 

9:00AM       Erin Blalock, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF CORTICOSTERIODS AND ANTIHISTAMINES ON THE GROWTH RATE OF THE FUNGUS ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA

 

9:15AM       Isak Jatoi, Spring Valley High School

                  A NOVEL APPROACH IN THE EXTRACT OF MELALEUCA ALTERNIFOLIA AS A POTENTIAL TOPICAL TREATMENT OF CUTANEOUS ASPERGILLUS USTUS INFECTIONS

 

9:30AM       Olivia Antonetti and Olivia Merritt, Heathwood Hall

                  WHAT IS THE RELATION BETWEEN SCHOOL DIVISION AND THE AMOUNT OF BACTERIA IN EVERYDAY PLACES

 

9:45AM       Garrett Kaufman, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF CORROSION ON THE ANTIBACTERIAL ABILITY OF COPPER, BRASS, ALUMINUM, AND STAINLESS, STEEL

 

10:00AM     Austen Money, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF THE T4 BACTERIOPHAGE, SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATIONS OF CIPROFLOXACIN AND METRONIDAZOLE, AND COMBINED PHAGE-ANTIBIOTIC USE ON ESCHERICHIA COLI B COLONY DENSITY

 

10:15AM     Ben Mathews, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS ON THE PROTEIN CHANGES IN E. COLI.

 

10:30AM     BREAK

 

10:45AM     Alejandra Ramirez, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF OMEGA-3 PUFAS ON ENTEROBACTER AEROGENES

 

Physics / Mentored Wall 307

 

8:30AM       Anish Chaluvadi, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  QUANTIFYING TTHE EFFECT OF CATIONS ON TRIPLET EXCITED STATES IN G-QUADRUPLEXES IN HUMAN TELOMERIC DNA

 

8:45AM       Matthew Siden, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  COMPOSITION OF STAINLESS STEEL BY AUGER ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

 

9:00AM       David Madden, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  USING MOTION CAPTURE CAMERA TECHNOLOGY TO UNDERSTAND THE MECHANICS OF BUTTERFLY FLIGHT AT VARYING PRESSURES

 

9:15AM       Yohan Moon, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  SINGLE-STRANDED DNA INVESTIGATION USING FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS AND COMPUTER SIMULATION

 

9:30AM       Nikhil Gottipaty, Spring Valley High School

                  THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE DISTANCE OF THE OBJECT FROM THE PLATE TO THE RESOLUTION AND DEPTH OF THE HOLOGRAM PRODUCED BY A HELIUM NEON LASER

 

9:45AM       Juliet O'Riordan, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON THE MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF GOLD AND COBALT BILAYER FILM

 

Physics / Non-Mentored Wall 307

 

10:00AM     John Heaton, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECTS OF ADDING DIVOTS TO THE HULL OF A BOAT ON ITS DRAG

 

10:15AM     BREAK

 

10:45AM     Parker Dixon, Chapin High School

                  EFFECTS OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON THE BALLISTIC APPLICATION OF SPIDER SILK

 

11:00AM     Davis Buchanan, Heathwood Hall

                  EXPANSION OF A HELMET'S EFFECTIVE DENSITY EFFECT ON AMOUNT OF LINEAR ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED INTERNALLY

 

11:15AM     Noah Swingle, Chapin High School

                  THE EFFECT OF VIDEO ANALYSIS ON INITIAL DISCUS LEARNING CURVE FOR NOVICE THROWERS

 

11:30AM     Spears Goodlett and Jackson Pringle, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS GOLF BALL TYPE ON DISTANCE TRAVELED

 

11:45AM     Caitlin Kunchur, Dutch Fork High School

                  EXPOSURE RESPONSE AND NOISE IN A DIGITAL IMAGING SYSTEM

 

12:00PM     Bangjie Xue, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT KINDS AND AMOUNT OF GRANULAR MATERIAL ON THE STABILITY OF A BALL ROLLING DOWN AN INCLINED RAMP.

 

12:15PM     Lee Sightler, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  REAL VS. ADVERTISED CAPACITY AND CAPACITY FADE IN LITHIUM ION 18650 BATTERIES

 

Physiology and Health / Mentored Wall 318

 

8:30AM       Priya Chokshi, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  ADIPOSE-DERIVED STEM CELLS SUPPRESSING INFLAMMATION IN PANCREATIC STELLATE CELLS TREATED WITH ETHANOL AND CERULEIN

 

8:45AM       Emily Pope, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  A LITERATURE REVIEW OF PHYSICAL THERAPY FOLLOWING NECK DISSECTION IN HEAD AND NECK CANCER PATIENTS

 

9:00AM       Gayle Cunningham, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  FLUSHED AND FROZEN: DEVELOPING OPTIMIZED METHODS FOR WHOLE BODY PERFUSION OF A MOUSE PRIOR TO CRYOPRESERVATION

 

9:15AM       Samuel Helms, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  IDENTIFICATION OF ZEBRAFISH CARRYING THE ZMYM2 AND ZMYM3 MUTANT ALLELES

 

9:30AM       Brantley Leaphart, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  A NEW MOUSE MODEL OF HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER DRIVEN BY MYC OVEREXPRESSION AND PTEN LOSS

 

9:45AM       Emily Lowther, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  ASSESSMENT OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY IN INFANTS USING DIFFUSIONAL KURTOSIS IMAGING

 

10:00AM     Claire Moore, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  G418 TREATMENT FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF A NONSENSE MUTATION IN THE X-LINKED INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY GENE CUL4B

 

10:15AM     Emily Giep and Aliyah Jamison, Dorman High School

                  THE EFFECTS OF ESTROGEN AND PHYTOESTROGEN ON MCF-7 HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELLS

 

10:30AM     BREAK

 

10:45AM     Daniel Patino, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  IMPACT OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON BODY MASS INDEX

 

11:00AM     Matthew Re, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EXPRESSION OF PGC-1Α AND MUSCLE FATIGUE IN APCMIN/+ MICE.

 

11:15AM     Greylan Smoak, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  MODELING OF HYDROGEL RHEOLOGY IN APPLICATIONS FOR LUNG MUCUS

 

11:30AM     Jonathon Tate, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT UTILIZATION BY DIABETIC PATIENTS IN SOUTH CAROLINA

 

11:45AM     Stewart Trask, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  THE EFFECTIVENESS OF WORKSTATION ORGANIZATION OF MEDICAL ERRORS IN THE OPERATING ROOM

 

12:00PM     Chase Turner, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  FLUORESCENT LABELING TO GENERATE GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) POSITIVE NEURAL STEM CELLS

 

12:15PM     Nikhil Vallabhaneni, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  THE USE OF CANCER MICRO-TUMORS FOR ANTI-CANCER DRUG SCREENING

 

12:30PM     LUNCH BREAK

 

1:30PM       Delaney Walden, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  THE EFFECT OF HISTONE METHYLATION ON NOISE INDUCED HEARING LOSS

 

1:45PM       Wenxin Fan, Spring Valley High School

                  ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DIETARY INTAKE OF ADVANCED GLYCATION END PRODUCTS AND PROSTATE CANCER AGGRESSIVENESS

 

2:00PM       Vincent Ylagan, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  CHARACTERIZATION OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SECRETED FRIZZLED-RELATED PROTEIN 2 (SFRP2) AND FRIZZLED-5 (FZD5) BY CO-IMMUNOPRECIPITATION

 

2:15PM       Dabriel Zimmerman, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  DIET AND DEPRESSION: A STATICAL ANALYSIS OF MAGNESIUM INTAKE AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS

 

Physiology and Health / Non-Mentored Wall 321

 

8:30AM       Olivia Fladung, Chapin High School

                  THE CORRELATION OF PATIENT SELF ASSESMENT OF SCAR TISSUE TO PHYSICAL THERAPIST EVALUATION

 

8:45AM       Alexander Dixon, Chapin High School

                  A STUDY ON THE SEVERITY OF NARCOTIC DIVERSION IN HOSPITALS

 

9:00AM       Kate Willhide, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF MUSIC GENRE AND VOLUME ON A PERSON'S HEART RATE AND REACTION TIME

 

9:15AM       Garrett Dean, Chapin High School

                  OPTIMAL WEIGHT LOSS METHODS FOR PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN SOUTH CAROLINA ADOLESCENT WRESTLERS

 

9:30AM       Lily Richter, Heathwood Hall

                  WHAT IS THE CORRELATION BETWEEN POOL CHEMISTRY AND A SWIMMER'S HEALTH?

 

9:45AM       Riana Shelly, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF GLUCOSE ON THE LACTASE ENZYME

 

10:00AM     Hannah Guess, Chapin High School

                  THE EFFECT OF OFF-SEASON TRAINING ON ONE MILE RACE TIMES

 

10:15AM     Trevor Squirewell, Heathwood Hall

                  THE CORRELATION BETWEEN COMMON LIQUID CONDUCTIVITY, BLOOD CONDUCTVITY, AND CRAMPS.

 

10:30AM     BREAK

 

10:45M       Garrett Ringer, Chapin High School

                  ANALYZING THE EFFECT OF WHEY PROTEIN TIMING ON BENCH PRESS MAX

 

11:00AM     Noah Hook, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF ULTRASOUND ON E.COLI DECONTAMINATION

11:15AM     Alyssa Sheppard, Chapin High School

                  ANALYSIS OF SNELLEN VISION TEST VERSUS PICTURE TEST DATA COMPARISON

 

11:30AM     Katie Dzoba, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  BANDAGE TO DECREASE COAGULATION TIME

 

11:45AM     Beverly Whitesides, Chapin High School

                  SLEEP LOSS AND MOTOR VEHICLE CRASH CORRELATION SURVEY IN ADOLESCENTS

 

12:00PM     Hillary Melton, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  EVALUATION OF SOLID MATERIAL MASS CASUALTY DECONTAMINATION

 

12:15PM     Hayden Derrick and Sam Coleman, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  DESIGNING AN ATTACHABLE ACCESSORY TABLE FOR WHEELCHAIRS

 

Psychology and Sociology / Mentored Wall 322

 

9:00AM       Johnathan Kovarna, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION BETWEEN 1990 AND 2014

 

9:15AM       Lauren Hawes, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  THE IMPACT OF INCREASED LANE MILEAGE ON TRAFFIC FATALITIES

 

9:30AM       Samantha Wei, Dutch Fork High School

                  THE PREVALENCE OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS IN YOUTH

 

9:45AM       Haley Nolan, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENERAL ANXIETY AND LANGUAGE DYSFLUENCIES IN MOTHERS WITH THE FMR1 PREMUTATION

 

10:00AM     Nancy Ou, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  THE EFFECT OF PAST TRAUMA ON THE BODY'S RESPONSES TO STRESS

 

10:15AM     Malik Sanders, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  HOW DO ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS RELATE TO ACADEMIC SELF-EFFICACY AMONG ADOLESCENTS?

 

10:30AM     BREAK

 

11:00AM     Vivian Vork, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  IS DEPRESSION RELATED TO HEALTH-RISK BEHAVIORS AMONG ADOLESCENTS?

 

Psychology and Sociology/ Non-Mentored I Wall 305

 

9:00AM       Bianca Huet, Chapin High School

                  THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADOLESCENT AMBLYOPIA AND THE PREDISPOSITION OF INTROVERSION OR EXTROVERSION IN A HIGH SCHOOL POPULATION

 

9:15AM       Jessica Cole, Chapin High School

                  OVERCOMING STEREOTYPES THAT HINDER ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE THROUGH PSYCHOLOGICAL PRIMING

 

9:30AM       Addison Blackmon, Chapin High School

                  THE COMPARISON OF VARYING MUSIC GENRES ON CONCENTRATION WITH ADOLESCENTS

 

9:45AM       Emily Franklin, Chapin High School

                  "ACADEMICALLY GIFTED": HOW DEFINING STUDENTS AFFECTS SELF-ESTEEM

 

10:00AM     Wesley Hankinson, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF ANTI-PHONE PSAS ON ADOLESCENTS’ PHONE USE AND ADDICTION

 

10:15AM     Danielle Murrin, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF PHOTO FILTERS ON THE EMOTIONAL RESONANCE OF TEENAGERS

 

10:30AM     BREAK

 

10:45AM     Sarayu Parise, Spring Valley High School

                  A COMPARISON OF FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTS ON THE LEARNING RETENTION OF ADOLESCENTS

 

11:00AM     Zachary Young, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC BACKGROUND VARIABLES ON THE AGGRESSION OF ADOLESCENTS PLAYING TETRIS

 

11:15AM     Caroline Quan, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC LABELING ON TASTE PERCEPTION

 

11:30AM     Lydia Comer, Heathwood Hall

                  THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PHOTO LINEUP DESCRIPTIONS OF AN EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY ON IDENTIFYING SUSPECTS IN A CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION

 

11:45AM     Skye Majka, Chapin High School

                  THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAY TO TEACH ENGLISH TERMINOLOGY

 

Psychology and Sociology/ Non-Mentored II  Wall 308

 

9:00AM       Clayton Bellinger, Chapin High School

                  WHAT FEATURES OF A NEWS POST ON SOCIAL MEDIA MAKE IT SEEM CREDIBLE?

 

9:15AM       Karsen Ward, Chapin High School

                  DOES A HANDS-ON, VISUAL PRESENTATION ABOUT WILDLIFE TO ELEMENTARY STUDENTS IMPACT LOCAL AWARENESS ABOUT WILDLIFE RESCUE?

 

9:30AM       Tyrell Fleshman, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF MARCHING BAND AND NON-MARCHING BAND ACTIVITIES ON A STUDENT'S ACADEMIC ACHEIVEMENT

 

9:45AM       Sydney Bertram, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  PARENTAL BASIS FOR HPV VACCINATION REFUSAL

 

10:00AM     Gabriel Corn, Spring Valley High School

                  THE APPLICATION OF THE PRISONER’S DILEMMA ON THE ABILITY OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS ON THE ABILITY TO TRUST OTHERS ONLINE

 

10:15AM     Gloria Kim, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS TYPES OF DISTRACTIONS IN A TESTING ENVIRONMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACADEMIC TASKS

 

10:30AM     BREAK

 

10:45AM     Kelsey Pratt, Chapin High School

                  THE EFFECT OF PEER TUTORING ON THE NARRATIVE COMPOSITION SKILLS OF REMEDIAL LEVEL ENGLISH STUDENTS

 

11:00AM     Sara Taylor, Chapin High School

                  CORRELATION BETWEEN PERSONAL ORGANIZATION AND HIGH SCHOOL GRADE POINT AVERAGE

 

11:15AM     Ben Feldman, Heathwood Hall

                  HOW FURTHER INTERNET USE ACCELERATES FUTURE INTERNET USE

 

11:30AM     Faith Robertson, Heathwood Hall

                  THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GRADE LEVEL AND THE STROOP EFFECT

 

11:45AM     Justin Feagin, Chapin High School

                  THE EFFECT OF SLEEP ON AVERAGE WEIGHTED GPA

 

12:00PM     Erin Siegfried and Anna Jowers, Chapin High School

                  DOES THE SPORT AND ATHLETE PLAY AFFECT THE WAY THEY THINK

 

Zoology / Mentored  Wall 211

 

8:30AM       Elizabeth DeLanghe, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  GROWTH OF MANDUCA SEXTA FROM EGG TO PUPATION

 

8:45AM       Sydney Lykins, Governor's School for Science & Mathematics

                  THE GROWTH OF MANDUCA SEXTA

 

Zoology / Non-Mentored  Wall 211

 

9:00AM       Sydney Hannibal, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF POLYETHYLENE MICROBEADS DAPHNIA MAGNA

 

9:15AM       Cynthia Leonard, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTS CONTAINING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS, COLGATE TOTAL ®, MICROBEADS, AND BPA, ON THE REGENERATIVE ABILITIES OF DUGESIA IIGRINA

 

9:30AM       Rahithya Meda, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF SUCROSE AND ASPARTAME ON THE GROWTH OF PLANARIA

 

9:45AM       Shubhanjali Minhas, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF IRON(III) OXIDE ON DAPHNIA MAGNA HEART RATE AND MORTALITY RATE

 

10:00AM     Gillian Patton, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF NONASSOCIATIVE LEARNING COGNITIVE PROCESSING ON ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE SEVERITY IN CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS

 

10:15AM     Matthew Payne, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF BISPHENOL-A SUBSTITUTES ON THE HEART RATE OF DAPHNIA MAGNA

 

10:30AM     BREAK

 

10:45AM     Bridgette Ravindra, Spring Valley High School

                  THE EFFECT OF GLYPHOSATE AND GAMMA CYHALOTHRIN ON THE TOTAL NUMBER OF VIABLE DAPHNIA MAGNA AND THE AVERAGE NUMBER OF OFFSPRING PER DAPHNIA SPECIMEN

 

11:00AM     Bethany Quinton, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  HANDS-FREE RELEASABLE LEASH

 

11:15AM     Katherine Hayden, Center for Advanced Technical Studies

                  REDESIGNING THE CANINE WHEELCHAIR

 


 

SCJAS ORAL PRESENTATION AbstractS

(Listed alphabetically by presenters last name)

 

 

DETERMINING THE AMOUNTS OF BACTERIA PRESENT IN MEAT POST VARIOUS FORMS OF COOKING AND THAWING

Roann Abdeladl

Greenville Technical Charter High School

 

Safety of meat is a prevalent concern in modern society that raises several questions regarding health and cooking meat. When thawing and cooking meat, many often make crucial mistakes that cause the propagation of dangerous bacteria. Building on research from previous years, in this experiment, I tested the various levels of bacteria in meat after utilizing different thawing and cooking methods. I tested bacterial levels in meat thawed at room temperature and in the refrigerator; I also determined bacterial colony counts in meat cooked in the microwave versus meat cooked on the stove top. After sterilizing samples of treated meat, I incubated the meat samples on petri dishes and used a microscope to determine the colony counts on the plate. The results demonstrated that meat thawed at room temperature had 23% more bacteria than meat thawed in the refrigerator; additionally, the meat cooked in the microwave had 19.6% more bacteria than that cooked on the stove top. By applying this knowledge, one should take measures to thaw meat in the refrigerator and cook meat on the stove top.

 

 

EFFECT OF THICKNESS OF COPPER PLATING ON ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES AGAINST S. AUREUS

Adam Abdulrahman

Chapin High School

 

Copper has significant antimicrobial effects (1,2). The implementation of copper into a hospital setting has also shown a dramatic decrease in infection rates (3). This study is focused on the use of varying thicknesses of plated copper on 4x4cm steel plates and whether the varying thickness is independent of the antimicrobial action on S. aureus. Two primary steps were necessary for experimentation. The first was to copper plate the steel plates by an electrolytic cell, comprised of a copper rod anode connected to the positive terminal of the power supply and the steel plate cathode connected to the negative, suspended in a Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate solution. The second is the inoculation and incubation of agar plates by samples of S. aureus taken from copper plates. Further research is necessary at lower dilutions of the S. aureus sample before incubation, as the initial incubations had counts significantly greater than 300 colonies. If the proper bacterial counts are successful, no significant correlation between thickness and antimicrobial action would suggest that even at low thicknesses, copper retains its antimicrobial effects on S. aureus. This means that my hypothesis would be confirmed, and that an increase in thickness has no added antimicrobial action. This could potentially suggest that hospitals could implement copper plated handles in susceptible areas, such as hand rails, instead of copper alloys, such as bronze, which would be more expensive. The increased cost effectiveness could potentially increase the implementation of such plating, further decreasing infection rates in hospitals.

 

 

IMPROVING EVACUATED TUBES

Maeghan Ainsworth

Center for Advanced Technical Studies

 

How can changing the insulation material of an evacuated tube effect the maximum temperature reached by the water being heated? If there is a change in the type of insulation, then the maximum temperature reached will change. Evacuated tubes are being used because they are the best for solar heating. It is predicted that the lower the R value, the higher the maximum temperature reached by the water will be. This is being completed to help areas where clean water is scarce, like many areas Africa. Cheaper models of evacuated tube lack a metal heat fin. Methods include using an evacuated tube holder and ten evacuated tubes of the same size, each having a copper metal fin and copper heat exchange tube, to test a range of insulating materials with varying R values: fiberglass, sand, soil, pine straw, and gravel. Another method is wrapping the fiberglass insulation around the heat exchange tube so that insertion and removal of both the heat exchange tube and fiberglass is easier. The data illustrates that indoor trials consistently surpassed 100 degrees Fahrenheit using two flood lamps; however, indoor trials will work to determine if an insulation is better or worse than the other insulations. In the future, data collection using the above mentioned materials will be completed.

 

 

MODULATION OF LYMPHOMA CELL SURVIVAL AND ANTIGEN PRESENTATION BY INORGANIC ARSENIC

Maegan Albert

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Azizul Haque, Medical University of South Carolina

 

Inorganic arsenic is a known carcinogen and a widespread water pollutant. Humans exposed to arsenic through drinking water are prone to develop malignancies such as skin cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer and bladder cancer, but rarely develop B-cell lymphomas. Modification of B-cell lymphoma antigen presentation by the arsenic may contribute to this trend of lymphoma resistance. In this study, B-cell lymphoma was treated with arsenic and its antigen presentation to T-cells was measured. Arsenic’s potential as an immunotherapeutic treatment was studied by observing whether it can kill lymphoma cells at high concentrations while enhancing immune responses at sublethal doses. Preliminary results are promising, showing lymphoma cell death and an increase in immune cell response.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LIGHT CONDITIONS ON CHLORELLA SP. GROWTH AND LIPID PRODUCTION

Kaouri Marie Alipio

Spring Valley High School

 

The need for fossil fuels in transportation usage has exhausted the fossil fuel supply and increased the demand for it or need for change in the types of fuel used in transportation. The most effective solution would be to use algae biofuels. This research was aimed to find the best strain of Chlorella spirulina for biofuels. The research was to cultivate the Chlorella sp. under different light conditions to determine if the different light conditions would increase lipid growth in the algae. It was hypothesized that the Chlorella sp. grown under the yellow light filters would produce more algae and produce the most lipids needed to make biofuels. The Chlorella sp. was placed under a grow light where they were separated into four different light filter groups, no filter, yellow, orange, and blue filter. The Chlorella Sp. was grown for 2 ˝ weeks. Energy yield of the algae was measured using a calorimeter and the amount of energy present in the algae was determined by calculating temperature differences, final temp- initial temp, and results showed that there was no significant difference (F(3,20)=1.37, p=0.280) in the algae grown in different light filters. Therefore, the hypothesis was not supported. In conclusion, the impact of yellow light on lipid growth and overall growth is no greater than the impact of other types of lights such as orange light and white light.

 

 

EPIGENETIC CHANGE EFFECTS ON DIFFERENTIATED EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO IN MICE

Julia Altman

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Ting Wang, Washington University School of Medicine

 

Epigenetics determine gene expression. Learning more about the effects of epigenetics could lead to a new treatment method for genetic illnesses. This study shows whether similar epigenetic changes occur when neural stem cells differentiate in culture or in vivo. Differences in gene expression between the two samples could be the result of varied epigenomes. The study aims to shed light on the differences between the epigenetics of stem cells differentiated in vitro and in vivo in order to better understand the limitations of lab grown cultures. Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and motor neurons were successfully differentiated using growth factors and then sorted using florescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Samples were taken from live mice for comparison to cultured cells. These cells were verified and primers were identified to aid in determining the relative expression of genes in vitro versus in vivo. Some of the qPCR results were unexpected, however, we were successful in isolating the desired cell types through FACS. Future studies will further examine the impact that in vitro differentiation has on the gene expression of the cells. Understanding this could lead to a better understanding of the differences of samples in vitro and in vivo.

 

 

WHAT IS THE RELATION BETWEEN SCHOOL DIVISION AND THE AMOUNT OF BACTERIA IN EVERYDAY PLACES

Olivia Antonetti, Olivia Merritt, and Kit Mullins

Heathwood Hall

 

The purpose of this project was to find the relationship between school divisions and the amount of bacteria in everyday places. The tested locations were 1) water fountain buttons, 2) doorknobs, 3) computer keyboards,4) desks, and 5) bathroom sink faucets. In order to find the amount of bacteria in each place, a cotton swab was swabbed on each location. The contaminated cotton swab was then placed on the petri dish using aseptic technique. Each petri dish already contained agar, that had been made and poured twenty-four hours beforehand. The hypothesis for this study states that if the amount of bacteria is compared between school divisions, then there will be a relationship between the amount of bacteria and school divisions. If there is a relation between school divisions and the amount of bacteria, then the lower school division will contain the most bacteria. The null hypothesis states that there will be no relationship between school divisions and the amount of bacteria. This experiment will benefit other schools because they will learn which division needs to be cleaned with more attention. Surprisingly, our results did not support our hypothesis, because the middle school showed the greatest amount of bacteria, when it was hypothesized the lower school would.

 

 

COMPARING DIFFERENT METHODS OF OBTAINING GRAPHENE FROM GRAPHITE

Hosam Arammash

Spring Valley High School

Mentor: Changyong Qin, Benedict College

 

Over the past couple of months intensive research has been carried out to try to determine a cost effective, efficient, and reliable method of producing graphene from graphite. The benefits of graphene are endless as it can be applied to different fields such as water purification as well as energy production. Fortunately, graphene poses relatively no implications, except one. The biggest problem linked with graphene is the ability to produce it, as graphene is extremely thin. In more scientific terms graphene is simply one sheet of graphite, which is fairly difficult to obtain. Two methods were conducted to observe whether graphene could be formed, each with its own little twist. Both methods utilized a state of matter known as supercritical fluid (SCF), to help separate the sheets. This state having characteristics of both gases and liquids, was able to make its way between the sheets. However, this method posed issues as after the graphene was released from heavy pressure, the sheets returned together. The second method hoped to solve this issue by adding a solvent, Dimethylformamide (DMF), to try to strengthen the bonds separating the sheets. As an extra precaution the sheets were then submersed in liquid nitrogen, further strengthening the bonds separating the sheets. The hypothesis of the experiment was that the second method would have higher results, as more was put into it. After conducting the research this was in fact true, with the second method producing substantially higher quantities of graphene than the first.

 

 

PROCESSING OF MISCIBLE THERMOSET BLEND WITH IMPROVED MECHANICAL AND WEAR BEHAVIOR

Saulo Arias Hernández

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Srikanth Pilla, Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research

 

The automotive sector is subjected to the regularly-revised Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for improving average fuel economy and vehicular efficiency of cars and trucks produced in the United States. This has led to focus on reducing vehicular weight. A 10% reduction in weight has lead to savings of 7-8% in fuel consumption. Currently used gears and sliding components in automobiles are produced from ceramics due to their excellent high-temperature properties and strong velocity resistance. However, ceramics also suffer from the drawback of high weight due to densities above 5g/cm3. Existing polymers can address this issue, but suffer from rapid deterioration, making them susceptible to wear. Hence, the need exists to develop polymers having the same heat, velocity, and wear resistance, durability, low density, and similar properties to those possessed by ceramics. This work presents an alternative solution in the form of wear-resistant polymers prepared using blends of two components to obtain optimal wear properties with enhanced mechanical performance for manufacturing these components. It is expected that through their integration, wear-resistant polymers will contribute towards significant reduction in vehicular weight of automobiles and help achieve desired environmental standards by 2025.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF THE LOVES TRUCK STOP ON THE TEMPERATURE, PH, MERCURY, DISSOLVED OXYGEN, AND TURBIDITY ON THE NEARBY WETLANDS

Madeline Ashcraft

Heathwood Hall

 

The purpose of this project is the determine the effect, if any, a new Loves Truck Stop has on the wetlands near the campus of Heathwood Hall. The temperature, pH, mercury levels, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity of the water was tested before the truck stop opened, as well as after it opened. Ten water samples were taken from the wetlands and each sample was was tested for the aforementioned data. After the truck stop opened, ten more samples were taken from the wetlands and tested again. The results show that the truck stop has slightly negatively affected the quality of the water in the wetlands. These results support my hypothesis.

 

 

THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERING PROMOTIONAL METHODS ON RECYCLING BEHAVIOR

Moji Awe

Spring Valley High School

 

Recycling is beneficial to the environment by reducing waste entering landfills. Many people have the ability to recycle, but it may become difficult if the members of the community do not have a basic understanding of recycling guidelines. The purpose of this experiment was to determine which method of promotion would have the greatest influence on the number of correct items recycled. It was hypothesized that the group in which the recycling bins location was manipulated to a more prominent location would be the most effective in increasing positive recycling behavior. The experiment was conducted at a public high school, where a randomly selected number of classrooms were chosen to participate. The different advertising methods were a flyer(Group A), a video (Group B), manipulating the location of the recycling bins (Group C), and the control group (Group D). A total of three classrooms were selected for each of the groups. The items in the recycling bins were analyzed twice before the promotions and once after. The results from the items recorded before and after the promotions were analyzed. A paired samples t-test was performed and showed that neither Group A (t(6) = 1.36, p = 0.223 < 0.05), Group B (t(2)= 0.00, p = 1.00 < 0.05), Group C (t(5) = 2.28, p = < 0.05), nor Group D (t(4) = 1.07, p = 0.346 < 0.05) presented a statistically significant difference in the correct items recycled before and after the promotions.Thus, it was not able to be determined which method of advertisement was most effective in influencing positive recycling behavior.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF THE BICYCLE SAFETY DEVICE ON HOW FAR AWAY A CYCLIST CAN DETECT A CAR BEHIND THEM.

Evan Barker, Luke Gabel, and DuBose Tuller

Heathwood Hall

 

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a device called the Bicycle Safety Device (BSD) and the use of headphones on how far away a cyclist can detect a car behind them. Research was done on the topic of bicycle safety because road biking can be very dangerous at times. Studies show that most bicycle related accidents happen due to the driver not seeing the cyclist or the cyclist not knowing of the driver. The Bicycle Safety Device aims to prevent that problem by alerting the cyclist. This will then allow for the cyclist to avoid the driver. The Bicycle Safety Device or BSD is an object sensor that alerts the cyclist, with a loud beep and flash of light, when a car gets close. The BSD was tested in multiple environments including the cyclist wearing headphones. Testing the BSD involved going onto a long straight road and having a car randomly approach the cyclist. The cyclist would then stand up if the BSD noticed the car. The headphones had a major effect on the cyclist, The car sometimes even passed them. The BSD was successful in many situations presented, but did not statistically increase cyclist’s detection of the vehicle.

 

 

THE EFFECT DIFFERENT FLAVORS OF ICE CREAM HAVE ON THEIR MELTING RATE

Mary Martha Beard and Julia Faulds

Heathwood Hall

 

The purpose of this project was to test the effects that the flavor of Southern Home ice cream had on the rate of which it melts. To conduct this experiment, a tablespoon of each flavor of ice cream was placed into a funnel into a graduated cylinder that collected the volume of ice cream melted. Ten samples for each flavor were placed in an incubator set at 50ş Celsius for 10 minutes. After testing this procedure for vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry ice cream, the data displayed that the ice cream melted in descending order of strawberry, chocolate, and vanilla. In conclusion strawberry ice cream melted the slowest, followed by chocolate ice cream, and vanilla ice cream, due to the content of strawberry chunks, which caused the ice cream to melt significantly slower than chocolate and vanilla. The chocolate ice cream melted slower than vanilla due to the cocoa powder and higher fat content. Vanilla melted the quickest because it had a lower fat content and a higher water content which causes ice cream to melt quicker.

 

 

WHAT FEATURES OF A NEWS POST ON SOCIAL MEDIA MAKE IT SEEM CREDIBLE?

Clayton Bellinger

Chapin High School

 

Fake news is becoming a very prominent issue in today's internet based society. These sites generate ad revenue in the tens of thousands of dollars, and there are hundreds of active sites that distribute false stories. This project aims to dinstinguish certain features of a news post on social media that people find to give it credibility. Of the most popular Facebook posts in 2016 on Zika, 6% were misleading, and one of the most prominent misleading posts was shared over 500,000 times, demonstrating the range of this issue. Illuminating specific features of a post that draw people's eyes will help expose the superficiality of many features of media posts in today's digital society. Preliminary data shows that pictures included in a news post will be most effective in contributing to credibility.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON THE GROWTH OF THE PHYTOPLANKTON AMPHIDINIUM

Pranav Bellukutty

Spring Valley High School

 

The ozone layer has been been depleting over the past few decades, which causes an increase in UV radiation that threatens growth and survival for phytoplankton. This issue has been researched thoroughly, and the effect of ozone depletion on the phytoplankton is enormous, as an increase in UV rays makes it more difficult for phytoplankton to grow. The purpose of this experiment was to compare the effects of ultraviolet light and white light on the growth of the dinoflagellate Amphidinium. As the ozone hole progressively gets larger, the amount of ultraviolet radiation the phytoplankton are exposed to will continue to increase. Since Amphidinium lives at the surface of oceans and lakes, it will be more readily affected by this. It was hypothesised that if the Amphidinium were exposed to ultraviolet radiation, then they would grow less in comparison to the Amphidinium exposed to the white light because the UV light will disrupt the Amphidinium. Amphidinium cultures were placed under the white light for 1 week before being split into two groups of 15 each, one exposed to UV and the other to white light. The separate treatments continued under their respective lights for another week. Afterwards, the wavelengths (nm) were calculated.The results showed that the white light had a smaller mean of 34.971 nm while the UV light’s mean was 42.091 nm. A T-test determined the values were insignificant, as P>alpha(T(68)=-2.01 p=0.072). The hypothesis was not supported because the test yielded insignificant results.

 

 

CLONING OF LPAR2 VARIANT (CHEST973J21) FOR FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS

Claire Benson

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Eric Birgbauer, Winthrop University

 

Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) is a phospholipid derivative that is involved in several biological activities, including acting as a signaling molecule. LPA has been previously observed to cause specific, dose-dependent cone collapse of retinal neurons in chick embryonic retinal axons. LPA is expressed in various cell and tissue types. Several studies also tie LPA to human cancer, various diseases, disorders, and infertility. The LPA receptor LPA2 is encoded by the LPAR2 gene, which is expressed in several organs including the prostate, spleen, pancreas, and ovary.  Recently, a chicken cDNA clone, ChEST973j21 (ChEST), was observed to be partially identical to LPAR2 at the nucleotide level, so it was considered an LPAR2 variant. It is important to understand the biological functions of ChEST in relation to cellular signaling and response. In order to do this, ChEST and chicken LPAR2 were cloned into mammalian expression vectors so they could ultimately be expressed in B103 cells to assess ChEST function.  By determining the functions of ChEST, it can be compared to the cellular responses and interactions of chicken LPAR2. This will help determine whether ChEST is a new LPA receptor that responds to LPA. In order to determine this, successful ligation must first be obtained. Therefore, it is important to understand how to achieve successful ligation. Several modifications have been made to the protocol to try and obtain successful ligation. However, ligation was never successful, but amplification of the ChEST gene and expression vector were.

 

 

PARENTAL BASIS FOR HPV VACCINATION REFUSAL

Sydney Bertram

Center for Advanced Technical Studies

 

Despite many efforts to increase the HPV vaccination rate, vaccination coverage rates remain low among both male and female adolescents. The purpose of this experiment is to discover and compare the reasons that parents of boys and parents of girls decline the HPV vaccine for their children. A written survey was given to parents who declined the HPV vaccination for their child during a visit to one of several Columbia-area pediatric offices. Parents anonymously answered questions about their demographics, used a Likert Scale to indicate their agreement with possible reasons for declining the vaccine, and ranked their top three reasons for declining the vaccine. At the time of this writing, no data has yet been collected. Response differences between parents of each sex will be determined using a Mann-Whitney U Test. It is expected that parents of boys and parents of girls will have statistically significant differences in their reasons for declining the HPV vaccination. This new data will provide insight to health practitioners on how to most effectively educate parents in order to increase the HPV vaccination coverage rate. If parents of boys and parents of girls do have different reasons for declining the HPV vaccine, practitioners may want to approach each group differently.

 

 

CHALLENGES FACED BY CYBER SECURITY ASSETS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA

Matthew Beymer and Hensley Graycen

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Chad Hardaway, University of South Carolina Columbia

 

Cyber security assets are threatened more and more every day. Researchers at the University of South Carolina examined the University’s existing cyber security practices and considered changes that might afford better protection. This paper presents the results of interviews with faculty conducting research in several fields. An interview script was created and responses from the interviews allowed the authors to determine several trends in cyber security challenges. Comparisons of these trends as they relate to research by different faculty show that parallels exist which may allow for improvements regarding cyber security across the university and eventually the state.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF A MOBILE APPLICATION ON FIRE SAFETY EDUCATION

Elizabeth Bickel

Spring Valley High School

 

The lack of knowledge about fire safety is a growing concern in our country. The National Fire Protection Agency surveys have shown that about 75% of Americans claim to have a home evacuation plan. However, more than half of those families cannot attest to practicing by means of a home fire drill. To better inform families of this important issue, the implementation of a fire safety application is proposed. This research was aimed at the creation of a mobile application to aid families in forming a fire escape plan, and informing them of the dangers of house fires, and focused on the creation of the first “Flash cards” section. It was hypothesized that the in-app flash cards would prove more beneficial in helping students to learn than traditional paper flash cards. The app was first developed through Apple’s XCode platform. Students were then tested with the digital flashcards and paper flashcards to see which was more effective. A two-sample t-test showed that the difference in quiz scores between the control group (n = 15, M = 1.40, SD = 1.12) and the experimental group (n = 15, M = 0.8, SD = 1.37) were not statistically significant, (t(6) = -1.31, p = 0.89). This concludes that the null hypothesis is supported, and it is suggested that there was no significant difference between the use of the app and the cards.

 

 

THE COMPARISON OF VARYING MUSIC GENRES ON CONCENTRATION WITH ADOLESCENTS

Addison Blackmon

Chapin High School

 

In 2015, 7.7 percent of high school seniors used amphetamines, among the most-used prescription, over-the-counter or illicit drugs, according to a survey sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. It is hypothesized that instead of using harmful drugs to enhance focus, music could be used as a replacement. Music causes the brain to release dopamine, which relaxes the individual and makes them more receptive to information. Researchers have found that music activates brain regions that are involved in movement, attention, and memory. The purpose of the project is to answer the question: “Which music genre is most effective in enhancing focus with adolescents in High School?” which will be answered through the use of survey and word searches. The students will answer questions on a preliminary survey, and then will be given word searches to complete under different music environments. The hypothesis is that classical music will be the most successful in strengthening focus because of past research supporting the hypothesis. The data from the survey showed there is a 0.702863 correlation between responses and certain questions. It is predicted that with further data collection, a more significant conclusion will be made on which music genre will help adolescents focus better.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF CORTICOSTERIODS AND ANTIHISTAMINES ON THE GROWTH RATE OF THE FUNGUS ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA

Erin Blalock

Spring Valley High School

 

The fungus Alternaria alternata is an allergy-causing fungus. Studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between the presence of asthma and allergies and exposure to the Alternaria alternata fungus (Salo et al.). The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether or not drugs commonly used to treat an allergic reaction caused by the fungus, have any effect on the growth of the fungus Alternaria alternata. Since corticosteroids repair the epithelial barrier and antihistamines sooth irritated histamine receptor, both treating the reactions caused by the fungus, it was hypothesized that one of these drugs would also have a an effect on the growth rate of the fungus. In the conducted experiment, the growth rate of the fungus Alternaria alternata, was recorded after applying Albuterol Sulfate, a corticosteroid measurement of 0.833 mL, and Diphenhydramine, an antihistamine measurement of 1 mL to the fungus. The growth rate was calculated by finding the difference between two specific diameters and dividing it by t or the amount of time elapsed between these measurements. While, the descriptive statistics illustrate that, the growth rate of values when the Diphenhydramine was applied after 24.17 hours had the most significant decrease in median growth rate, with a median value of -0.35003 mm/hour, the statistical analysis suggested there was no difference in the means. A One-Way ANOVA showed that the mean growth rates for all applications were not statistically different, as the p = 0.0935 >= 0.05, since F(5,174) = 1.92 . The results of this study showed that corticosteroids and antihistamines did not have an effect on the growth rate of the fungus.

 

 

USING ULTRASONIC WAVES TO DETERMINE BOND QUALITY BETWEEN ALUMINUM PLATES

Chris Bodkin

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Lingyu Yu, University of South Carolina Columbia

 

Structural health monitoring (SHM) addresses a pressing need of our aging infrastructure. The increasing costs of maintaining the aging infrastructure can be addressed through SHM systems that will decrease unscheduled maintenances while increasing safety and reliability. A more specific area of concern is in the aerospace industry. Most aircraft are made with a large amount of composites, which have unique damage types such as micro-cracking and delamination. These damages can cost an excess of money and lives if not detected early. This experiment was made to learn if non-contact SHM could be used to determine bond quality. This is important because layered composites are thin layers of different materials that are bonded together. In this experiment, aluminum plates were bonded together using adhesive film. Multiple pristine specimens were made as well as a damaged specimen, the damaged specimen had a piece of Teflon in the bonding. The plates were taken to an immersion tank to be scanned with ultrasonic waves. The scans were able to show variations in the bonds as well as the damage. This is good news, as further research can be done working toward an efficient and dependable SHM system for the aerospace industry.

 

 

IDENTIFYING MARKERS OF STEM CELL DIFFERENTIATION THROUGH QPCR QUANTIFICATION

Abbie Bowman

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Ting Wang, Washington University School of Medicine

 

Stem cells provide the answers to all biological questions. These undifferentiated stem cells turn into specialized cells through growth factors and other signaling molecules. In clinical application, stem cells can be designed for specific treatments to treat illnesses and diseases. However, the way in which stem cells differentiate is still unknown. We know that growth factors can turn on certain signals and push a stem cell toward a certain fate but, we do not know which signaling molecules are used. The changing of gene expression through modifications to chromatin structure is known as epigenetics. The understanding of how epigenetics work in differentiated cells would allow researchers to delve deeper and answer the questions no one knows. However, to study the epigenetics of a differentiated cell, one must be able to confirm the identity of a differentiated stem cell. We developed methods to confirm differentiated cell types. Using primers designed for specific genes in Astrocyte, Oligodendrocyte, and Motor Neuron cell samples, we ran qPCR quantification to amplify specific genes in the differentiated neural cell samples. A total of 11 genes were amplified in differentiated cell samples, 8 expressed in Oligodendrocytes, 1 expressed in Motor Neurons, and 1 expressed in Astrocytes. We identified markers of stem cell differentiation which allow the further development of epigenetic exploration.

 

 

AUTONOMOUS COURSE NAVIGATION BY HIGH-SPEED 1/10 SCALE RACECARS USING LIDAR AND PASSIVE STEREO CAMERA

Nikki Bregman

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Sertac Karaman, Massachussets Institute of Technology

 

The field of autonomous vehicles is rapidly expanding.  Companies like Google and Tesla have been on the forefront of these advances.  This project aimed to explore the challenges of autonomous vehicles through scale model cars.  Our Rapid Autonomous Complex-Environment Competing Ackermann-Steering Robots (RACECARs) were outfitted with a 270° laser radar (LiDAR) and a color stereo camera and ran Ubuntu for ARM processors using the open-source Robot Operating System (ROS) software library.  The project was broken into weeks with building goals culminating in the completion of a racecourse.  The first goal was to use LiDAR for autonomous wall-following.  The second goal was to identify colored flags and turn based on the color, following the correct wall.  The next focus was on space exploration and identifying a greater variety of colored flags.  Our work shed light on the pitfalls of autonomous navigation and the path that future work will follow.

 

 

DEVELOPING A HUMAN POWERED ELECTRIC BICYCLE

Christopher Bristow

Center for Advanced Technical Studies

 

Current electric bicycle kits face a major problem with limited range due to battery type.  Development of an electric bicycle kit with a human powered generator will increase the bicycle range by storing energy from the pedaling motion of the operator.  In order to make a normal bicycle electric, a hub motor is placed in center of the front wheel.  The generator is installed and connected to pedals allowing the energy from pedaling to be stored in batteries extending the conventional electric bicycle range.  Based on the project’s design, the cyclist will be able to travel farther on a single battery charge.  The voltage and amperage are monitored in this research study while pedaling on downward slopes and on flat surfaces.  The effectiveness of the generator is then determined and range extension calculated.  An electric bicycle kit with a generator will allow the cyclist to travel longer distances between charges and human powered on-board recharging will provide an energy efficient product not currently available in today’s market. 

 

 

BREAST CANCER RADIATION BRA

Brogan Brown

Center for Advanced Technical Studies

 

More than 90% of patients receiving radiation treatment will develop the painful skin reaction Radiation Dermatitis, more commonly know as “radiation burns”. For women who undergo radiation therapy for breast cancer, radiation dermatitis often renders them unable to wear a traditional bra due to the painful and sensitive nature of their skin. In order for many of these women to carry on with both their treatment plans and their lives, an alternative garment option is needed. Preliminary free response surveys and multiple choice surveys were sent out to a network of patients and survivors to establish criteria and guidelines for what the product should accomplish. Patient and survivor insight, as well as physician recommendations will be utilized in the design and fabrication of the product. After a prototype is made, a review survey will be sent out to a subset of the original network in order to judge the prototype against the established criteria. Data analyses will be run on the review surveys to identify weak aspects of the product design. Prototype fabrication and review will continue until prototype satisfies all criteria. Ultimately, the breast cancer radiation replacement bra will allow women undergoing radiation treatment for their breast cancer to continue on with both their treatment plan and their lives, no longer hindered by pain or the inability to wear an undergarment.

 

 

EXPANSION OF A HELMET'S EFFECTIVE DENSITY EFFECT ON AMOUNT OF LINEAR ACCELERATION EXPERIENCED INTERNALLY

Davis Buchanan

Heathwood Hall

 

The impulse of two objects is always conserved in an impact, however this does not mean that all of the impulse must be felt or experienced by a partaking internal figure. During any given football practice or game, concussion is a possibility, as players often exchange blows to the head and neck area, whether legal or not. Forty-seven percent of the three and a half million concessions reported in 2015 occurred during high-school football, according to Headcase (www.headcasecompany.com). Modern helmets are simply insufficient in protecting the brain against concussion. Greater public awareness about the risk and consequences of concussion, as well as better understanding of concussion’s long-term effects has shined new light on the topic recently. By increasing a helmet’s padding effective density (thickness), you allow for more time between the initial external collision of the helmets, and the acceleration of the brain internally which leads to concussion. The time increase between the internal and external accelerations, should allow for lesser peak accelerations felt by the brain, according to the formula: change in time equals mass times change in velocity, as a greater time will mean a lesser peak force exerted internally. The null hypothesis, stating that an increase in effective density would not have an effect on accelerations internally was not able to be rejected, because an ANOVA test of the data showed no statistical difference; however, a bar graph of the different means did suggest that there is possibly a correlation.

 

 

TEMPORAL RELEASE DYNAMICS OF VARIOUS TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE LIPOSOME FORMULATION

Katrina Bynum

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Dieter Haemmerich, Medical University of South Carolina

 

Drug delivery systems have been developed to target tumors and decrease toxicity and side effects associated with chemotherapy. Temperature Sensitive Liposomes (TSLs) are a type of nanoparticle (100-200 nm) that can act as a drug delivery system. TSLs contain a drug and release it at hyperthermic temperatures (>40°C), and, with localized hyperthermia, can release its contents directly to a tumor site. Blood stays at a tumor site for only a few seconds, so the drug must be released quickly in order to be most effective. Therefore, it’s important to test and characterize various conditions for drug release from TSLs in order to find conditions that allow for the greatest drug release in the shortest time period. In this experiment, a novel setup was created to study release dynamics of doxorubicin (DOX) under varying conditions: temperature, liposome formulation, and the solution in which DOX is released. TSL-DOX was pumped through a thin capillary tube set above a Peltier element, allowing rapid heating and thereby releasing DOX from TSL. DOX fluorescence is quenched inside TSL, but once released, DOX can fluoresce and its concentration can be measured. The Peltier element was heated to temperatures ranging from 37°C to 45°C in 1°C intervals. Three formulations were tested (citrate buffer, ammonium sulfate buffer, and commercial Thermodox) in two different solutions (phosphate buffered saline and fetal bovine serum). The citrate buffer formulation of TSL-DOX had the greatest and quickest DOX-release at 45°C in FBS, at 80% DOX release within 1.5 seconds.

 

 

EXPLORING VIRTUAL BRANCHING STORIES FOR VR HEADSET GAMING USING UNITY ASSETS AND C# SCRIPTS

Brennora Cameron

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: William Bares, College of Charleston

 

Interactive narrative experiences within virtual reality allow players to make choices that control how the plot unfolds. Players have the freedom to truly embrace and walk around a virtual 3D world. These interactive experiences have become a hot topic in today’s society. People enjoy this technology, but many gamers have brutally critiqued the flatness of these games. In games such as Job Simulator, there is no power in the hands of the player; the user may get the sense that they are being tugged along the game’s predefined plot line. Among the gamer community, there is an overall desire for a game that will let the player control the story. Because of this, many questions are raised. This summer, the College of Charleston Department of Computer Science under the direction of Dr. William Bares created a narrative-driven game, set in a virtual realm. The objective of this project was to create a game where the player is allowed to control their own gaming experience and will want to play it again. This game is meant to incorporate meaningful dialog decisions and 3D interactions through the use of Unity dialogue trees. Due to the game’s branching decision structure, there are several ways to reach a multitude of endings.

 

 

EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM LIF EXPOSURE ON MYOTUBE DIAMETER AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

Pierce Carrouth

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: James Carson, University of South Carolina Columbia

 

Cachexia is a muscle wasting syndrome found in patients with late stages of cancer. It leads to rapid loss of body fat and skeletal muscle tissue and has a significant impact on the mortality rates of patients. Cachexia is multifactorial, but studies have shown that high levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and LIF induce symptoms that promote this muscle wasting. However, it is unknown whether this is from an overexpression of protein synthesis or an increased protein degradation. LIF is a cytokine in the IL-6 family, and its impact on cachexia needed to be measured. C2C12 cells were treated with LIF for 24 hours prior to collection and the rates of myotube atrophy and protein synthesis were measured in order to determine the role of LIF on cachexia.  Myotubes were photographed and the average diameters of the groups grown with LIF and without LIF were calculated. Puromycin, which was introduced to the cell cultures 30 minutes prior to collection, and p6070SK content was measured for the control and experimental groups using a western blot.  Cell groups that were introduced to LIF had smaller myotube diameter and were less organized than the control group. Cell groups with LIF had significantly lower amounts of puromycin and p6070SK in their cells.  Based upon these results, LIF induces symptoms myotube atrophy symptoms, as well as the rate of protein synthesis. However, further research is required to understand LIF’s signaling pathways and the affect other cytokines have on cachexia.

 

 

ENHANCING THE BIOMECHANICAL DESIGN OF THE FOOTBALL HELMET (CONCUSSION PREVENTION) PT. 2

Casey Carter

Spring Valley High School

Mentor: Abigail Tyson, Virginia Tech University

 

Concussion research has become a very relevant topic across various media outlets. In the NFL there was an increase of 58% on the amount of concussions during the regular season in 2016. Concussions are very serious injuries to the brain and there needs to be as much data as possible to continue preventing their occurrence. The purpose of this continued research study was to seek a solution that would help with the prevention of concussions in the sport of football. The hypothesis stated that, If there was an attachment added to cover the brain-stem area of the football helmet, then there would be a decrease in the kinetic energy measured. To test this theory a Pendulum Impact Machine was used in the Impact Biomechanics Lab at Virginia Tech University to replicate the force of impact and measure the outcomes. The prototype was placed at the brain stem area of the football helmet and is used to protect the skull by distribute force that could lead to concussions. Impact was conducted on the front, back, and side of the helmet, with and without the created prototype. The resultants that were reviewed were Peak Angular Acceleration, Peak Angular Velocity and Peak Linear Acceleration. Findings display that, the data partially supported that the prototype has the ability to distribute/lessen the force on the football helmet.

 

 

EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC ART IN CULTURAL DISTRICTS: RESULTS OF A SURVEY IN THE CONGAREE-VISTA

Wells Carter

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Lee Snelgrove, One Columbia

 

This research examines which factors best define a cultural district and then attempts to derive a new metric, defined by public art, to measure the impact of the Congaree-Vista in Columbia, South Carolina. A survey instrument was designed. It solicited enough information concerning citizens opinions of public art and cultural districts. The survey was distributed to concerning members of the Congaree-Vista neighborhood association. The data revaled public art has a strong effect on the impact of a cultural district on a community. The evidence suggests that it may be approiate to use public art as one metric to distinguish a cultural district.

 

 

QUANTIFYING TTHE EFFECT OF CATIONS ON TRIPLET EXCITED STATES IN G-QUADRUPLEXES IN HUMAN TELOMERIC DNA

Anish Chaluvadi

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Soo Yong Kim, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

 

Today, G-quadruplexes are an active research area because of their potential as an anticancer method. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), the aim of this research was to prove that different cations could produce different G-quadruplex structures, and this was quantified by measuring the stability of the affected G-quadruplexes through the dynamics of triplet excited states. Being an abnormal intermediate energy level, a G-quadruplex in which electrons go into the triplet state equates to the fact that these G-quadruplexes are less stable, and thus, they are less effective in protecting against mutations and cancer. In this experiment, human telomeric single-stranded DNA was tagged with carboxytetramethylrhodamine, a fluorophore, to quantify the dynamics of triplet excited states. From our data, we concluded that K+ did not affect the number of photons in triplet excited state whereas the number of photons in triplet excited states in Na+-based and Mg2+-based G-quadruplexes decreased with greater concentration. From this, it was reasonably hypothesized that different cations resulted in different loops around G-quadruplex structures. Specifically, Mg2+ would produce the most safe and stable G-quadruplex structure because it decreased the percentage of electrons in the triplet excited state by a wide margin. This experiment could be foundational in opening a new pathway for targeted cancer research, proving that the structure and shape of G-quadruplexes could be manipulated through a variety of mechanisms.

 

 

AN ANALYSIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL POTENTIAL OF THE BIG SHORT

Ethan Chan

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Jim Morris, SC Economics

 

The general public is relatively unaware of certain details within the science of economics. Economics covers a very large range of topics that is often very difficult to understand. The film The Big Short offers a solution. It is about the housing crisis of 2008. It is meant to be educational and easy to follow such that the average viewer can understand the economic concepts portrayed in the film. The film’s success at educating its audience was tested. The results showed that for the particular subject group, the film accomplished its goal. Viewers were able to learn about the housing bubble and how it burst. They learned several economic concepts discussed in the film. The subjects gave positive feedback on the movie. Films are a great method for teaching because they appeal to such a large audience. Many people already watch films, so it is beneficial for them to be learning as they do it. People are more likely to see a film than sit in a lecture to learn about a topic. The success of The Big Short may inspire films in the future to follow its example.

 

NOVEL MOSQUITO CONTROL: A NATURAL APPROACH TO REDUCING AND REPELLING MOSQUITO POPULATIONS

Vinita Cheepurupalli

Spring Valley High School

 

Mosquitoes are considered one of the most dangerous animals around the world, causing over 725,000 deaths globally per year. They are a major concern to human health because they can serve as vectors to pass agents that cause diseases, such as malaria, yellow fever, the Zika virus, and the West Nile virus, among many others. While many of these diseases can be cured, they can cause a multitude of harmful side effects, such as seizures, coma, conjunctivitis, and death. Different commercial mosquitocidal agents exist, but the overuse of them have caused mosquitoes to develop resistance, as well as causing harm to humans and the environment. To help prevent resistance, natural extracts could be used to repel or kill mosquitoes. The purpose of this experiment is to test various plant extracts for their effectiveness in acting as larvicides, insecticides, and repellents against Culex quinquefasciatus. It was hypothesized that if Chrysanthemum coccineum (chrysanthemums), Trachyspermum ammi (ajwain), and Nymphaea odorata (white water lily) were tested as natural insecticides, larvicides, and repellents, and VectoBac 12AS, permethrin, and DEET were tested as commercial mosquitocides and repellents, VectoBac 12AS, DEET, and permethrin would be the most effective as larvicides, repellents, and insecticides, respectively. T. ammi would be the most naturally effective larvicide, insecticide and repellent, followed by C. coccineum and N. odorata. For the purpose of this experiment, the essential oils from the leaves of Chrysanthemum coccineum, Trachyspermum ammi, and Nymphaea odorata were extracted through steam distillation; these oils served as the natural treatments. Culex quinquefasciatus were used as the model mosquito. To test the larvicides, 20 L4 larvae were placed in 10 mL of water, and 1 uL of the extract was added to the water. Mortality was observed. To test the insecticides, 250 mL bottles were coated with a stock solution of ethanol and the extract. Mosquitoes were introduced to the bottles and the mortality was observed. To test the repellents, mosquitoes were introduced to a tube with filter paper on one end and filter paper soaked in an extract on the other end. Movement of the mosquitoes was observed. For the larvicide and insecticide data, repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted, and since p<0.001, it was concluded for both that there was a significant difference in the data (F(10,1085)=18.21, F(4,1085)=75.70, p<0.001, F(10,1085)=18.44, F(4,1085)=76.83, p<0.001). Interaction plots showed there was no correlation between time and treatment. One way ANOVAs showed that there was a significant difference between treatments (F(4,95)=15.34, p<0.001, F(4,95)=19.61, p<0.001). Post-hoc Tukey tests found that there was a significant difference in mortality ajwain and chrysanthemum, ajwain and lily, ajwain and control, chrysanthemum and permethrin, lily and permethrin, the control and permethrin, chrysanthemum and VectoBac 12AS, lily and VectoBac 12AS, and the control and VectoBac 12AS. For the repellent, a one way ANOVA conducted found that there was a significant difference between 2 or more of the treatments (F(4,95)=4.65, p=0.002). A post-hoc Tukey test showed that there was a significant difference between the ajwain and control, chrysanthemum and control, lily and control, and DEET and control. Thus, the hypothesis was partially supported as VectoBac 12AS, DEET, permethrin, and ajwain were the most effective as larvicides, insecticides, and repellents, but C. coccineum was less effective than N. odorata.  Ajwain would be an effective larvicide, insecticide, and repellent, while the chrysanthemum and lily would be effective repellents, and if they were refined, could be used commercially.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF STROMAL CELLS ON TUMOR CELL GROWTH UNDER HYPOXIA

Eric Chen

Dutch Fork High School

Mentor: Peisheng Xu, University of South Carolina Columbia

 

Tumorigenesis has been considered to be as a result of abnormal cell-cell communication. Although it is known that the tumor-associated microenvironment often becomes hypoxic, how stromal cells influence tumor cell growth in this microenvironment is largely unknown. In this study, we found that under hypoxia, tumor cells survive better when cocultured with their associated fibroblasts than when cultured alone. Fibroblasts, on the other hand, did not undergo noticeable change. This suggests that interactions between the cells significantly affected the tumor cells' ability to withstand hypoxia. Further ELISA array analysis identified several growth factors, including fibroblast growth factor 2 and Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, which may mediate this interaction. These results suggest that blockage of tumor-stroma interactions by elimination of these mediators may make tumor cells more sensitive to treatments.

 

 

DISASTER-READY KIT

Katie Chin

Center for Advanced Technical Studies

 

The Philippines has suffered from an inexhaustible number of typhoons, earthquakes, and other natural disasters. The current emergency kits that exist to aid the population during natural disasters lack in cost efficiency and availability. Due to the lack of resources in rural areas,  the spread of communicable diseases rapidly occur, targeting areas that are strongly impoverished. The top 6 diseases in 2013 (Acute Respiratory Illness, Open wounds, bruises, and burns, High Blood Pressure, Skin Disease, Fever, Acute watery diarrhea) are easily manageable through basic hygiene. The Disaster-Ready kit is modeled based off of those diseases and aims to ultimately be distributed to people who live in rural areas in the Philippines. By doing so, it is expected to see an increase in availability of these basic hygienic resources to people in areas that are unable to avoid the spread of infection during natural disasters. The kit’s success will be measured by a survey dispersed anonymously to patients at San Giuseppe Mission and Health Center located in Canlaon City, Philippines and each survey participant will receive a free kit as a result.  This survey includes a rating system for each product, questions regarding other possible products, and family sizes. When the surveys are returned, the ratings will be collected and the kit will be assembled accordingly.

 

 

ADIPOSE-DERIVED STEM CELLS SUPPRESSING INFLAMMATION IN PANCREATIC STELLATE CELLS TREATED WITH ETHANOL AND CERULEIN

Priya Chokshi

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Hongjun Wang, Medical University of South Carolina

 

An inflamed and scarred pancreas is a major characteristic of chronic pancreatitis. No exact cause has been determined, but certain factors, such as heavy drinking and family history, have been shown to play a role in chronic pancreatitis. The purpose of this experiment was to test a stem cell treatment that could suppress symptoms of chronic pancreatitis, such as inflammation and fibrosis (the scarring of the pancreas). In order to model chronic pancreatitis symptoms, pancreatic stellate cells were treated with ethanol and cerulein to induce inflammation and fibrosis. Our hypothesis was that a treatment with adipose-derived stem cells decreases ethanol and cerulein-induced inflammation in pancreatic stellate cells. The expression of four genes (Beta Actin, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, Fibronectin, and Interleukin-6) was monitored in order to test this hypothesis. The expression of each of these four genes plays a significant role in fibrosis and inflammation. Our qPCR results confirm that the expression of these four genes decreased as a result of the treatment of pancreatic stellate cells with adipose-derived stem cells. These results strongly suggest that adipose-derived stem cells could be an effective treatment for chronic pancreatitis.

 

 

THE EFFECTS OF SOIL CONTENT ON THE DECOMPOSITION OF A NAPKIN

Townsend Christian and Audrey Osborne

Heathwood Hall

 

The purpose of this experiment was to identify which variables placed in the soil sped up the rate of decomposition of a shredded napkin. The different variables in the soil are lumbricus terrestris, Tenebrio Molitor,banana peel, and then a control with nothing in the soil. The hypothesis for the experiment was having Lumbricus Terrestris in the soil will result in the fastest decomposition of a napkin. Three trials were conducted. The experiment was carried out over a course of five weeks. The containers were weighed and had pictures taken of them everyday. After the data was collected, it was analyzed by a single factor ANOVA statistical and analysis test. The data was not statistically significant from each other, but it showed the mass of each container in each trial had decreased. The overall result proved that the original hypothesis was right. The hypothesis stated that adding lumbricus terrestris to the soil would speed up the rate of decomposition the most. After analyzing the data, it revealed that the lumbricus terrestris,in fact, sped up the rate of decomposition of the napkin the most.

 

 

CHARACTERIZATION AND LOCALIZATION OF TRAB AND TRAJ THROUGH FLUORESCENCE STUDIES

Timothy Christie

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Peter Christie, Mcgovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

 

This study focuses on bacterial conjugation, and more specifically, explores the Type IV Secretion System and the proteins that make up this machine. The goal of this project is to characterize and localize specific proteins involved with the Type IV Secretion System and thus characterize and localize the machine itself. This is accomplished by modifying the KM101 plasmid that codes for the Type IV Secretion System coupled to a marker that codes for a fluorescent protein. When constructed, the fluorescent protein attaches to the protein of interest and is localized by fluorescence microscopy. Our results indicated that the machine was being created and functions normally with, and without, the presence of recipient cells. One interesting result is that there were multiple foci where the fluorescent proteins were located within a cell. This suggests that multiple machines were being created within a single cell. This study furthers knowledge of how cells transfer genetic material, and could be useful in fields such as medicine and disease prevention.

 

 

OVERCOMING STEREOTYPES THAT HINDER ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE THROUGH PSYCHOLOGICAL PRIMING

Jessica Cole

Chapin High School

 

This study is focused on the effects psychological priming has on low to average performing high school sophomores and juniors, in regards to their SAT scores. The brain is constantly receiving stimuli and utilizes memories to correctly respond to the situation at hand. Thus, the environment and the information it yields directly or indirectly affects a person’s  mindset at a subconscious level. This is known as psychological priming. Prior studies have found that the subconscious can often control not only one's mood, but also one’s actions and thoughts. This study builds upon a foundation of research focused on both student-impacting stereotypes (Steele) and studies that focused on motivation (Dweck). The data concluded that there is a significant correlation between presenting students with a fact-based article that iterates the power of the human brain and higher scores on mock passages from the SAT.  This project is specifically focused on student population with a high composition of minority. When the psychological priming was applied to students where race-based stereotypes were activated, they performed better than the control group where the negative stereotypes were not activated.  This was proven by a p-value of .07.

 

 

DESIGNING AN ATTACHABLE ACCESSORY TABLE FOR WHEELCHAIRS

Sam Coleman

Center for Advanced Technical Studies

 

As more Americans become wheelchair dependent, they are hesitant to lean forward to perform daily activities such as reading or eating.  If a table is created to be attached to the wheelchair, then people who are wheelchair bound will be able to perform activities such as reading and eating without having to lean forward because the table will always be there for them. Results will be collected via a survey which will be given to anybody who test the table. This chart has the categories of: usefulness based on size, if the table can be stored be side the wheelchair, how easily the table can be adjusted to meet the requirements of the patient, and if the table is sturdy enough to perform daily task on. Data will be analyzed based on the feedback from the survey and on criteria which includes: sturdiness, usability,  easily stored, and adjustable. Our finding will tell us if creating a table that can be stored be side a wheelchair and then turned up with a motor is actually possible and if there needs to be any modifications to our project. In the future, we hope that this table will lead to us getting a patent on the table which will hopefully allow us to  produce this table for the growing number of people who are becoming wheelchair bound.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PHOTO LINEUP DESCRIPTIONS OF AN EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY ON IDENTIFYING SUSPECTS IN A CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION

Lydia Comer

Heathwood Hall

 

The purpose of this experiment is to test whether computer generated descriptions or eyewitness testimony descriptions are more accurate in a photo lineup when attempting to choose the correct suspect. This will be tested by showing the subjects three different real life cases and mock photo lineups, each consisting 6 photos, four of which are filler photos and the remaining two are photos of the innocently convicted suspect and the guilty suspect. All subjects saw the same three photo lineups and background information of the real life criminal case and trial, however one group was presented with the eyewitness testimony describing the suspect and the other group was presented with a computer generated description. The subjects then chose who they best thought matched the description that corresponded with their group for each lineup. The hypothesis is that if subjects are given the computer generated description, then they will be more likely to chose the correct suspect in the photo lineup. The null hypothesis is if subjects are given the description from the eyewitness testimony, then they will be more likely to chose the correct suspect in the photo lineup. The two control groups proved that there in fact was not a significant difference between the two descriptions, thus rejecting the hypothesis that the computer generated description was more accurate. The null hypothesis was also rejected, that the eyewitness testimony would be more accurate, because the data showed no significant difference.

 

 

THE APPLICATION OF THE PRISONER’S DILEMMA ON THE ABILITY OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS ON THE ABILITY TO TRUST OTHERS ONLINE

Gabriel Corn

Spring Valley High School

 

With the rise of the internet more people are beginning to rely on it. People may be more likely now to trust someone on the internet even if they had previous bad experiences. It was hypothesized that elementary students would be more likely to sell out in comparison to adults and high school students. This research was to find if a person will continue to choose the same answer even if they are betrayed in another experience. Groups of varying ages were assembled and told upon completion of the project they would get a reward based on how many points they earned. They were then told the rules to the prisoner’s dilemma, provided forms to fill out, indicating whether they would sell out their partner or keep quiet, and after this they were told what their partner answered. This was repeated with randomized partners nine more times, but on the last trial they were asked to explain how they felt about the partners they were given throughout. An one-way anova test showed that there was a significant difference between groups [F(2,37)= 4.94, P= >.05]. Post hoc comparisons using a Tukey test indicated that the mean score for Adults (M = 2.75, SD = 1.9129) was significantly different from high school students (M = 6.64 , SD = 3.01). This showed that High school students were more likely to sell out in comparison to adults.

 

 

FLUSHED AND FROZEN: DEVELOPING OPTIMIZED METHODS FOR WHOLE BODY PERFUSION OF A MOUSE PRIOR TO CRYOPRESERVATION

Gayle Cunningham

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Demetri  Spyropolous, Medical University of South Carolina

 

Every day, people are dying due to their inability to obtain organ transplants, as an organ will only remain viable for ten hours after it is harvested. A better method of organ preservation that does not compromise the tissue of the organ is required in order to extend the time from organ collection to transplant. The goal of this project is to develop a method for a whole body mouse perfusion that results in the most viable tissue after freezing and thawing back out. Tissue crystallization during in the freezing process varies in severity depending on how well the perfusate was distributed in the body, which results in nonviable tissue. We injected seven and a half blood volumes were injected into each mouse. Through four trials, a variety of perfusion methods were implemented, including use of different perfusion sites via the left and right ventricle, and different perfusates, such as PBS (phosphate buffered saline) and the cryoprotectant “Special K Special Sauce.” Blood samples were collected throughout the perfusion to measure the hematocrit levels as the perfusion progressed. The perfusion into the left ventricle using PBS was predicted to produce the most stable decline in hematocrit; however, the samples with “Special K Special Sauce" would be more viable after thawing, due to an antifreeze component that will prevent the tissue from crystalizing when cooled. The use of these hematocrit values as well as the future viability tests will provide insight into the best hope to develop an almost universal preservation method.

 

 

USING RACE PROTOCOL TO GET FULL LENGTH GENE FRAGMENTS OF CANDIDATE GENES SELECTED IN PASPALUM VAGINATUM AND ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA

Samantha Czwalina

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Hong Luo, Clemson University

 

The environmental impact of watering gardens and lawns is becoming an increasing problem for the agricultural industry. Water waste has forced strict regulations on the usage of water, and using recycled water for lawn care can be ineffective due to the harsh salts and contaminants present.  The sea grass, seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), has exhibited tolerance to high salinity conditions and is currently being investigated for this tolerance.  The research conducted focused on identifying and amplifying six candidate genes that may play a role in P. vaginatum’s ability to tolerate high salt contents. Gene fragments for P. vaginatum and the control plant Arabidopsis thaliana underwent a RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) protocol in order to obtain the entire gene sequence.  Eleven out of twenty-four gene fragments successfully amplified through RACE and PCR reactions. After successful amplifying and creating gene sequences for all candidate genes, they will be transformed into E. coli for testing. This testing will reveal how the genes respond to high levels of salt stress. This knowledge will contribute to the understanding of how gene expression affects the plants’ response to high levels of sodium. If these genes are confirmed to help aid with salinity resistance, they have the potential to be inserted into grass species that would help benefit plant survival.

 

 

USING NON-TRADITIONAL RESOURCES TO BUILD TEMPORARY HOUSING FOR THE HOMELESS

Dennis Daly

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Michael Nixon, Meadors, Inc.

 

The main goal of this research project was to design a housing structure to address the homelessness problem in Charleston, South Carolina. Homelessness is an unsolvable problem – as long as there is a structured society, there will be people who will be homeless. That being said, it doesn’t prevent ways of reducing homelessness. It is recognized that there are certain individuals that don’t want to live in a home, and would rather be living outside (i.e. with no designated home). Therefore, this project isn’t meant to integrate those individuals into housing, but rather the goal was to design a temporary home for those types of citizens. This temporary housing environment would be used as a proper shelter from the outdoors for the homeless citizens. It is a way to provide shelter while these citizens work on a way to get back on their feet. The housing is designed to be modular, in that, multiple units can come together to build a larger structure. Much of the work done on this project at Meadors Inc. was on the mathematical, and conceptual aspects of the project. Consequently, any physical testing on the structure was minimal. Various calculations were done on the structure regarding the several forces that may act on the structure. Although it was not tested, a junction point was designed and built.

 

 

THE EFFECTS OF TENSION, CURVATURE, & LIPID DIFFUSION ON THE ENRICHMENT OF RAS PROTEINS IN THE CELL MEMBRANE

Nina Daneshvar

Dutch Fork High School

Mentor: Mark Uline, University of South Carolina Columbia

 

An intriguing part of the cell membrane that provokes study is protein anchor enrichment on the cell membrane. Specifically, recent in vitro studies involving the enrichment of Ras proteins were done to see how enrichment was affected by changes in membrane curvature and evinced that Ras proteins inclination to highly curved membranes. Other research done in vivo, however, provoked further research of this mechanism since when highly curved protrusions were created in living cells, Ras proteins continued to show affinity for the inner leaflet despite what would be assumed as increase in lateral pressure. This would provoke research to determine the exact mechanism(tension, curvature, lipid diffusion tendencies) affecting Ras protein spatial localization. Since mutated Ras can initiate uncontrolled cell division (cancer), this research would allow for deeper understanding of the mechanisms of the Ras protein in order to inhibit uncontrolled signaling and binding to the cell membrane. The computer program will be used Fortran to create multiple model membranes and measure the ratio of relative densities of anchors associated with the N-Ras protein as a function of tension and concentration of lipids in the outer leaflet . The hypothesized belief would be that Ras proteins bind to the inner leaflet more with increased tension and concentration of lipids in the outer leaflet in vivo; results instead proved that it is moreso the concentration of lipids in the outer leaflet that drive a shift in the lateral pressure fields to allow more Ras protein enrichment in the inner leaflet in vivo.

 

 

A NOVEL TECHNIQUE TO PURIFY WATER USING THE COAGULANT PROPERTIES OF MORINGA OLEIFERA TO FILTER PHARMACEUTICALS, HEAVY METALS, AND HERBICIDES FROM CONTAMINATED WATER SOURCES.

Sarayu Das

Spring Valley High School

 

In recent years increasing levels of pharmaceuticals,heavy metals,and herbicides have been detected in the rivers of North America.Purpose of this experiment was to create cost-effective,eco-friendly water purification system that can filter out seven classes of pharmaceuticals frequently found in the waters of United States (Tri-sprintec, Ibuprofen, Prozac, Diflucan, Lipitor, Amoxicillin,and Metformin),along with two heavy metals(Lead and Chromium),and a herbicide(Atrazine).Moringa oleifera is a plant grown in areas of South America and Asia and is known for its seeds’ coagulant properties to reduce water turbidity. However, there were no studies conducted on removing pharmaceuticals using Moringa oleifera, and hence used in this experiment.It was hypothesized that if contaminated water with pharmaceuticals,heavy metals,and herbicide are run through the filter,then concentration of these contaminants in each of the water samples would decrease,because coagulant properties of Moringa oleifera should filter these harmful contaminants from water.This was achieved by building a multiphase filtration system with fine sand,coarse sand,and sawdust as pre-filter and Moringa seeds as water coagulant.This filtration system tested efficiency and percentage removal of these contaminants in three phases.The contaminant water samples were run through filter and concentration of these chemicals were measured before and after the experiment.T-tests were run to compare controls and trials for each contaminant.The p-values of six pharmaceuticals and both heavy metals were less than alpha value of 0.05,and thus the alternative hypothesis could be supported.However,Prozac and Atrazine showed inconsistent results warranting further tests.This experiment thus confirms the coagulant properties of Moringa oleifera and its effective absorption rate of 80% on pharmaceuticals and heavy metals.

 

 

THE CREATION OF AN APPLICATION ON THE UNDERSTANDING OF SENSORY OVERLOAD OCCURRENCES

Parker Davis

Chapin High School

 

The project focuses on the creation of iOS-based software to link devices to track stimuli in the brain and vital signs on the persons of elementary-middle school aged kids. The application gives way to studying the signs of outbursts in the minds of many with mental handicaps and the brain and body's response to outside and naturally caused influences. The project is to be carried out on the campuses of Lake Murray Elementary and Chapin Intermediate School. Three individuals are 'wired' with the proper devices that passively record data and be activated by certain thresholds to obtain more detailed and specific data points. The current hypothesis about the direction of the data is that with the tools given to supervisory adults, children struggling with environmental-based sensory issues will be properly treated. By tracking these vital aspects of the body and mind, children and adults' conversations about outbursts or breakdowns will be much more focused and effective.

 

 

INHIBITION OF TBK1 AND IKKΕ BY AMLEXANOX SYNERGIZES WITH BORTEZOMIB TO REDUCE MYELOMA CELL GROWTH

Sarah Davis

Home School

Mentors: Deborah Galson and Quanhong Sun
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University Of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute

 

Multiple myeloma causes increased osteoclast activity and decreased osteoblast formation that results in extensive bone damage. The aim of this study was to explore the potential usefulness of Amlexanox, a TBK1 and IKKε kinase inhibitor that decreases osteoclastogenesis, as a potential therapeutic for MM bone disease. Amlexanox alone slowed the growth of myeloma cell lines. Therefore, this study tested the effects of combining Amlexanox with a current myeloma therapeutic, the protease inhibitor Bortezomib, on myeloma cell growth and apoptosis. First, the effects of a single suboptimal dose of Amlexanox and Bortezomib alone and in combination on five MM cell lines were assessed using CellTiter-Glo assays. This was followed by analyses of a set of total drug concentrations (Ľ, ˝, 1, 2, 4-fold) that maintained a constant ratio of Amlexanox to Bortezomib based on their IC50s to determine whether their combined effect on the myeloma cells was antagonistic, additive, or synergistic. The results of the assay showed that the drugs combined antagonistically at low doses and synergistically from the IC50 up. In addition, the effects of Amlexanox on different stages of bone marrow differentiation to osteoclasts were tested using a TRAP assay. These results showed that the first 48 hours after exposure were the most critical to decrease osteoclast formation. The results of this study suggest that Amlexanox combined with Bortezomib is a potential therapeutic treatment for myeloma patients and the Amlexanox may help to prevent excess osteoclastogenesis in myeloma patients.

 

 

OPTIMAL WEIGHT LOSS METHODS FOR PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN SOUTH CAROLINA ADOLESCENT WRESTLERS

Garrett Dean

Chapin High School

 

In its current form, this project’s purpose is to find a correlation between specific weight loss methods in wrestlers, and those wrestlers’ performance and energy levels on the mat. This topic is being investigated in order to help make the practice of weight cutting safer, and prevent injuries in high school wrestlers that are a result of excessive weight loss using dangerous and ineffective methods. In order to gather data for the project, wrestlers were polled after their matches for their before-season weight, their beginning-of-week weight, their weight-in weight, their weight cutting methods used, and their energy levels during their matches. Data was also gathered by watching each wrestler and rating them on a performance scale (GPT). Once sufficient data is gathered, a mixed model will be used in order to find correlation between techniques and physical performance. The results and data from this project are helpful in the real world because that they show optimal weight loss techniques for the health, energy levels, and performance of wrestlers. Then these techniques can be implemented in wrestling rooms, and less effective methods can be omitted, allowing the practice of cutting weight to become safer, and more practical for high school wrestlers.

 

 

GROWTH OF MANDUCA SEXTA FROM EGG TO PUPATION

Elizabeth DeLanghe

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Charles Beard, Clemson University

 

The Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta, is a type of sphinx moth reared for the purpose of studying its proboscis. It is indigenous to North America. Its larval diet consists of the leaves of the nightshade family, while its adult diet revolves around the nectar of white flowers. There have been issues at Clemson’s entomology labs concerning the feeding of the adults and overall survival rate during studies of the species. This is due to a diet lacking in nutrients in the final larval stage before pupation. In the first part of this study, the caterpillars were placed in modified mosquito breeders with different types of food, all containing some form of carotenoids (except for the control). They were fed and grown, with several of the food types causing the mortality of their ten designated caterpillars and only two being able to take about half of the original population to pupation. This was crucial into the second part of this experiment, as it required the caterpillars to survive to a certain size and age and be healthy enough to develop into pupae. After a few weeks, older and larger caterpillars were introduced to carotenoids later in their life cycle. These had been previously eating the commercially made food meant specifically for them. The ratio of the commercially made food in their diets to the carotenoid food was changed to see if they would have better vision after they made it to adulthood. The caterpillars grew and the survivors pupated.

 

 

DESIGNING AN ATTACHABLE ACCESSORY TABLE FOR WHEELCHAIRS

Hayden Derrick and Sam Coleman

Center for Advanced Technical Studies

 

As more Americans become wheelchair dependent, they are hesitant to lean forward to perform daily activities such as reading or eating.  If we were to create a table that can be attached to the wheelchair, then people who are wheelchair bound will be able to perform activities such as reading and eating without having to lean forward because the table will always be there for them. In order to do this we will design multiple prototypes each being more advanced and innovative than the last. We will achieve this by designing one prototype at a time and receiving feedback from users to direct us toward our final product design. Each design will take steps, in operation and materials, towards our final goal product. Results will be collected via a survey which will be given to anybody who test the table. This chart has the categories of: usefulness based on size, if the table can be stored beside the wheelchair, how easily the table can be adjusted to meet the requirements of the patient, and if the table is sturdy enough to perform daily task on. We will analyze our data based on the feedback from the survey and on criteria which includes: sturdiness, usability,  easily stored, and adjustable.

Throughout the course of our research we will create more advanced prototypes in order to reach our final product goal. We will adjust designs and operations of our table as our research is conducted. Our finding will tell us if creating a table that can be stored be side a wheelchair and then turned up with a motor is actually possible and if there needs to be any modifications to our project. In the future, we hope that this table will lead to us getting a patent on the table which will hopefully allow us to  produce this table for the growing number of people who are becoming wheelchair bound.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON ZINC LEACHING FROM RUBBER TIRE MULCH

Elizabeth Dillon

Spring Valley High School

 

Scrap tires are being recycled into many products in order to bypass slow degradation in landfills. Recycled rubber tire mulch contains zinc oxide used in tire formation that can be released through the creation of leachates. This study examines the relationship between temperature environment and leachate zinc concentration. After observing rubber mulch surface temperatures in conjunction with other factors, it was hypothesized that higher temperatures would lead to increased zinc release by rubber mulch and higher leachate zinc concentrations. Leachates were created by mixing 10 grams of mulch and 200 mL distilled water and placing in 5oC, 29oC, and 71oC environments for 24 hours. Zinc content in ppm was then tested and statistically analyzed with ANOVA at alpha=0.05. A significant decrease in mean leachate zinc concentration as temperature increased was shown between the 29oC (M = 5.733, SD = 1.486) and 71oC (M = 4.133, SD = 0.516) treatments and the 5oC (M = 6.533, SD = 0.743) and 71oC treatments (F(2, 42) = 22.19, p< 0.01). Therefore, within these intervals, decreasing temperatures increased rubber mulch breakdown and leachate zinc concentration. Because tires are created at high temperatures during the vulcanization process, it is reasonable to consider that tires are strongest at higher temperatures. Studying the effect of rubber mulch leachates on soil and various organisms would provide a direct study to more accurately deduce potential environmental impacts.

 

 

EFFECTS OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON THE BALLISTIC APPLICATION OF SPIDER SILK

Parker Dixon

Chapin High School

 

A large problem in our modern time is the lack of advancement in body armor for personal protection. Since the 1970’s all soft armor has used kevlar or a substance that is chemically similar. Kevlar vest that are used by police, FBI, and the Secret Service are inflexible, heavy, and do little to reduce the impact of a bullet. This project answers the question of whether or not it is possible for Carbon Nanotube infused Spider Silk to stop a .44 magnum round with lighter weight, more flexibility, and better energy dispersion than currently out on the market. Through extensive research and the aid of experts in the field of materials engineering, spiders, and a few researchers, i was able to solve it out on paper whether or not the material could stop the round. While i can not test the actual fiber, due to natural silk being so hard to produce and synthetic silk not yet produced, mathematically the fiber excels on paper being much stronger, at 5.4 GPA vs kevlars 3 GPA, and more flexible, at 30% compared to 10%, than competitors. This project provides information on, and concludes, that mechanically it is possible to use Carbon Nanotube Infused Silk to stop a .44 Magnum round. This will pave the way for current body armor to improve and change.

 

 

A STUDY ON THE SEVERITY OF NARCOTIC DIVERSION IN HOSPITALS

Alexander Dixon

Chapin High School

 

This project is about the narcotic diversion, with specific respects to fentanyl, that is occurring in hospitals. Narcotic diversion is the stealing or syphoning of drugs from reserves. Fentanyl is a highly sought after and addictive, and sold for absorbent amounts on the black market. The main problem with fentanyl diversion is caused by doctors, since anesthesiologists for example work with narcotics multiple times a day, with almost unlimited access. A survey of 260 anesthesiologists from the Medical College of Wisconsin graduating between 1958 and 1988 reported that 32 percent used drugs to “get high” and 15.8 percent had been drug dependent. (Medical college of Wisconsin)  The optimal time for this diversion to occur is at time of disposal. This is when the doctor wastes the leftover drug he/she didn’t use on the patient. This is the optimal time for the diversion of fentanyl, since at this time the only precautionary measure is notarized disposal.  Notarized disposal is a procedure in which a nurse watches a doctor waste the narcotic, and in the case of fentanyl a clear liquid, and co-signs saying that the doctor did actually dispose of the narcotic. The problem with this system is that in some cases, like fentanyl, the liquid is clear. My project looks at the scope of this problem and the validity or necessity of a solution or form of preliminary test for fentanyl.

 

 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIQUID ELECTRODE BATTERIES WITH AQUEOUS LITHIUM CARBONATE

Paul Dubberly

Spring Valley High School

 

Flexible, yet powerful batteries are needed to power numerous devices, and a simple battery with liquid electrodes would be highly flexible.  Because of the chemical advantages of lithium-ion batteries, materials common in lithium batteries but as solutions could be used to create a highly productive and flexible battery.  The purpose of this experiment was to create and test a simple battery using liquid electrodes, but with the relative strength of a lithium-ion batteries.  It was hypothesized that if aqueous lithium carbonate were used as the cathode material in a simple battery, the battery would produce more power than if hydroquinone were used as the cathode.  A suspension of graphite and water in a mass ratio 1:2.4 was placed in a 50 mL beaker.  Also, 0.1 molar Li2CO3 (aq) was placed in another 50 mL beaker.  A wire was placed with one end in each beaker to allow electrons to flow.  The same was done again with Hydroquinone instead of Li2CO3.  The power produced in volts by Lithium Carbonate (M=0.23, SD=0.17) was significant, t(9)=3.72, p=0.002 when compared to 0.  The power produced in volts by Lithium Carbonate (M=0.23, SD=0.33) and by Hydroquinone (M=0.23, SD=0.17) do not differ significantly, t(13)=1.32, p=0.10.  Therefore, aqueous lithium carbonate can be used as a liquid battery material though will need more testing to show greater production than other liquid batteries.

 

 

COMPARING INTERACTION ENERGIES OF WATER AND NH<SUB>2</SUB> ADSORBATE ACROSS VARYING COVERAGES

Natalie Duprez

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Rachel Getman, Clemson University

 

Catalysts are used in many industrial processes to make essential chemical reactions feasible. Therefore, it is important to understand the details of how catalysts promote reactions, particularly in the aqueous phase, where water is involved. In this investigation, the coverage of the adsorbate was changed, where the adsorbate was the group of molecules interacting with the catalyst, in order to determine how the energy of interaction between the water and adsorbate changes. Five unit cells were constructed, which included an 18x18x3 Pt catalyst surface, an adsorbate layer directly above the catalyst, and a randomly generated H2O layer. The five coverages of adsorbate used were 1/324 ML, 1/36 ML, 1/4 ML, 1/2 ML, and 1 ML. Two molecular dynamics simulations were run using the LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) Molecular Dynamics Simulator. First, frames were generated to simulate the movement of water. Then, the interaction energy between the adsorbate and water for each frame was calculated. This energy was then averaged to find the interaction energy for each unit cell, and the interaction energy per NH2 molecule was also calculated. As expected the energy became more negative with an increase in the number of NH2 molecules. For the energy per NH2 molecule, there was a minimum at the 1/4 ML cell. However, more coverages should also be explored to better support these results and ensure that there is a real correlation.

 

 

BANDAGE TO DECREASE COAGULATION TIME

Katie Dzoba

Center for Advanced Technical Studies

 

The objective of this study is to determine which substance, when added to blood, causes the fastest coagulation time (Phase I), and to develop a bandage that this substance will be integrated into (Phase II). It is hypothesized that if a substance decreases coagulation time and is infused into an innovative bandage design, then it will successfully stop bleeding from a minor wound faster than bandages that are already on the market. Coagulation time will be collected among volunteers’ blood samples via pricking their finger, and all-natural tea and coffee will be added to their blood samples to be analyzed under a microscope to time the exact clotting time. These coagulants both contain Tannic acid which has astringent qualities to stop bleeding. Sheep blood clots most similarly to human blood and will be placed onto the final design of the bandage to further determine if the bandage fulfills the hypothesis. The sheep blood clotting time will be compared using other bandages that exist in the market to determine if this innovative design is more effective at stopping bleeding than preexisting bandages. There is currently no data on blood clotting time using the two coagulants and further testing and trials need to be run before moving onto Phase II.

 

 

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DIETARY INTAKE OF ADVANCED GLYCATION END PRODUCTS AND PROSTATE CANCER AGGRESSIVENESS

Wenxin Fan

Spring Valley High School

Mentor: Susan Steck, University of South Carolina School of Public Health

 

Cancer is a genetic disease that results from mutations in cell function, growth, and division. Epidemiological studies analyze the health and disease cause and effects of conditions in certain populations and are the basis for many etiological studies. Research has shown that diets of high caloric intake consisting of red meat and fatty foods promote the growth of carcinogens. This occurs due to increase insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and hyperglycemia. Advanced glycation end products AGEs are formed from the glycooxidation of macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. AGEs act in reducing tissue flexibility when forming crosslinks with extracellular matrix proteins by binding with transmembrane, pattern recognizing receptors (RAGEs). Endogenously, AGEs are accumulated when the body undergoes metabolic oxidative stress. Aging also allows for the accumulation of AGEs in tissues. Exogenously, AGEs accumulate and are formed when food is cooked with dry heat and high temperatures. The intake of food and beverages as well as the practice of smoking introduces more AGEs to the body. In 2001 it was reported that incidence rates of prostate cancer were 50% higher and mortality rates were 150% higher for African American than Caucasian Americans. Possible factors that contributed to this may be racial differences in prostate cancer screening and care or seeking behaviors, which results in delayed diagnosis and less aggressive or appropriate treatment. Racial differences in etiology and pathology of patients may also influence the aggressiveness and progression of tumor cells.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF SLEEP ON AVERAGE WEIGHTED GPA

Justin Feagin

Chapin High School

 

<p>While at high school, many students get a varying amount of sleep depending on their life and schedules. Also, these students all have weighted GPA's. This project looks to see if there is a pattern between how much sleep students get on average compared to their weighted GPA. This data can be obtained through a anonymous survey asking students to simply state how much sleep on average they get each night, what time they usually go to bed and wake up, and what their weighted GPA is.</p>

 

 

HOW FURTHER INTERNET USE ACCELERATES FUTURE INTERNET USE

Ben Feldman

Heathwood Hall

 

The purpose of this experimentation is to assess the impact of how internet use to retrieve information influences how we access future information. Use of search engines such as Google to answer difficult questions results in an artificial dependence on internet usage to answer trivia questions which the subject should be able to answer. With easy accessibility to the internet subjects were potentially more likely to become cognitively dependent which may interfere with their future ability to independently process information. This dependence could decrease cognitive performance and productivity when the internet is not available. The current experiment is an extension of a previous study by Benjamin Storm et.al. This study was designed to see if the same results were true in a high school population. The initial hypothesis was that if high school students were given the choice of using the internet or their own memory to answer a set of questions, then the students would depend upon the internet instead of their memories to answer the trivia questions. However, the opposite appeared to be true because the null hypothesis was supported by the results of this study.

 

 

THE CORRELATION OF PATIENT SELF ASSESMENT OF SCAR TISSUE TO PHYSICAL THERAPIST EVALUATION

Olivia Fladung

Chapin High School

 

The body’s tissue cells that regenerate post injury form adhesions. These adhesions act as strong bonds that pull and shrink causing restricted motion within an affected area. For this study consented patients filled out a Patient Observation and Self  Assessment Scale. This scale is also filled out by the patient’s physical therapist. The scores are measured, averaged and correlated with a Matched Pairs T Test. This study is to develop the understanding of patient self perception of their scars in comparison to the physical therapist’s evaluation. The patient gender, age range, surgery date, incision closure, and a picture is observed from the patient with consent. The vascularization, pigmentation, thickness, relief, pliability and evaluation score is taken from the therapist’s observation. The pain, itching, coloration, stiffness, thickness and irregularity is asked of the patient self observed of their scar and an average score is taken.  I hypothesize that females and patients who do not manage their scars will have higher personal scar  assessment scores in comparison to the therapist score. The same scar management routine is given to each patient recorded in data collection.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF MARCHING BAND AND NON-MARCHING BAND ACTIVITIES ON A STUDENT'S ACADEMIC ACHEIVEMENT

Tyrell Fleshman

Spring Valley High School

 

It was hypothesized that there is a positive association between dietary AGE intake and prostate cancer aggressiveness due to increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response that results from the advanced glycation end products. Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Louisiana State University conducted a comprehensive, multidisciplinary study for causes of racial disparities in the aggressiveness of prostate cancer, and the nutrition and dietary survey from the study

 

 

THE ROLE OF UPARAP, A CELL SURFACE COLLAGEN RECEPTOR, IN MOUSE MODEL OF EMPHYSEMA

Karli Fletcher

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Lynn Schnapp, Medical University of South Carolina

 

The purpose of this research was to determine whether or not the collagen uptake receptor, uPARAP, plays a role in the matrix remodeling of the lungs during the development of emphysema. This research was completed using knock out (KO) uPARAP mice that had been smoked with tobacco or not smoked, and smoking and non-smoking wild type (WT) mice. Many methods were used during this research to draw conclusions, including genotyping, protein assays, white blood cell differential, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. From genotyping, it was confirmed that all of the study mice involved in the experiment were organized correctly. The protein assays showed that there appears to be no significant difference between the protein concentrations of the non-smoking and smoking WT and KO uPARAP mice. The white blood cell differential showed that there appears to be a greater amount of neutrophils in the lung tissue of the KO uPARAP mice than the WT mice, both before and after smoking. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction seemed to confirm that pattern by displaying that there may be greater expression of a neutrophil chemoattractant in the mice that had the largest number of neutrophils. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction also showed that uPARAP does not appear to be regulated by smoke, and collagen expression in the lungs may decrease with smoking.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF LED LIGHTING ON THE DETERIORATION OF OIL PAINT

Jasmine Marie Flora

Spring Valley High School

 

combined with a database for advanced glycation end product content in commonly consumed foods was used to create a new database to quantify the survey results with the AGE content. A SAS code was then generated to process the 2000 survey results to quantify average AGE content per day per person. Data collected about the severity of the cancer and about the race of the participants will then be combined with the data for AGE content to search for any patterns or relationships.

 

 

VARIABLE TOLLING FOR EXTERNALITY REDUCTION IN COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA TRAFFIC

Samuel Floyd

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Chandini Sankaran, University of South Carolina Columbia

 

Rush hour traffic produces a number of negative externalities areas such as pollution, congestion, and oil dependency. This study aims to quantify these effects in Columbia, South Carolina in an attempt to ascertain the extent of their monetary impacts and make loose expectations for what can be done to alleviate the issue. Traffic counts were obtained at one intersection in downtown Columbia and the data was analyzed with an index that quantified the effect of externalities. In addition, emission data was compared with that provided by the EPA for Richmond County to see the contribution of yearly emissions from a single intersection. The results show a presence of externalities, the extent of their importance a question yet to be determined as well as what the most suitable solution is given a more comprehensive analysis of traffic flow.

 

 

FINDING THE SPLITTING NUMBERS OF TILES

Jacob Folks

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Gregory Clark, University of South Carolina Columbia

 

In this research, the bounds of splitting numbers for finite tiles and their characteristics were analyzed. From prior research by Dr. Cooper, it was proved that the lower bound of splitting numbers is 2, and an upper bound is |T|+1, where |T| is the number of elements in a tile. The main result of this research was proving a tighter upper bound that is |T| for all finite tiles T by the use of an algorithm that can split any |T|-covering without fail. This research also proved that translations, reflections, and scalar multiples of tiles have equal splitting numbers. This allows the tiles to be grouped into categories based on their root tile.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE ELECTRICAL OUTPUT OF A THERMOELECTRIC ARMBAND

Cody Foster

Spring Valley High School

 

Today's society is governed by battery life in electronic devices. Research was conducted to experiment with the use of the human body’s ambient energy as a possible alternative source in the form of thermoelectricity. The purpose of this experiment was to determine which aerobic exercise would produce the most electric energy in millivolts (mV). It was hypothesized that jogging would produce the most electric energy due to the enhanced blood flow and overall increase of activity. The participant wore a thermoelectric armband and partook in three differing activities, each for ten minutes: sitting (the control), walking, and jogging. Sitting had an average of 6.453mV, walking had an average of 7.847, and jogging had an average of 11.060. The variation between the trials was found significant, as indicated by an ANOVA F(2, 42)=50.39, p<0.05. A tukey test indicated that the significant difference was between all of the trials; sitting, walking, and jogging.

 

 

"ACADEMICALLY GIFTED": HOW DEFINING STUDENTS AFFECTS SELF-ESTEEM

Emily Franklin

Chapin High School

 

Academically gifted programs are prominent in American education. Students are defined as academically gifted at a young age, most often around second or third grade using written tests or standardized test scores. Students who are involved in gifted programs are often given more opportunities and pushed to do more than those students who are not defined as gifted. A survey was created to analyze a student’s self-esteem. The survey asked the students questions about their self concept, home life, school habits, and interactions with others. Each question is a statement and must be answered with “always,” “most of the time,” “sometimes,” or “never.” They’re given a score (always is 4, most of the time is 3, etc.), and the higher the total score, the higher their self-esteem. Surveys were administered to students in randomly-selected homeroom classes by their homeroom teachers. A two sample t-test was conducted and the p-value at a 90% confidence level was .0767. Because the p-value at this confidence level is .0767, the data is significant enough to reject the null hypothesis that there is no significant between the self-esteem levels of gifted students and those of nongifted students, and support the alternative hypothesis that the self-esteem levels of gifted students are higher than those of nongifted students.

 

 

TESTING THE ABILITY OF A PROSTHETIC TO RESIST CHANGE IN POSITION AND HANDLE WEIGHT

Royce Frye

Spring Valley High School

 

Currently there are over 41,000 people in the United States who have lost an upper limb (Williams and Walter 2015). In order to help these individuals live the most normal life possible, prosthetics are made. Unfortunately, they are very expensive. Two prosthetic structures were tested during this study, one was made with moldable plastic and strap on attachment mechanism, and another was made with aluminum and clip on attachment mechanism. These were placed on a vertical approximation of an arm upside down, and weights were placed on the hook, causing the prosthetic to (possibly) slip off. The structures were attached to the arm at a certain point, and at the end of the test, the distance away from the first point was measured. After this, weights were attached to the prosthetic to see when the prosthetic starts to fail, or break. It was found after the tests and an ANOVA that neither the clip on, nor the strap on performed better (p (0.628) >a (0.05)), meaning that the only determining factors in choosing the prosthetic are weight and comfort. The aluminum being lighter, it seems to be the better design.

 

 

THE EFFECTS OF ESTROGEN AND PHYTOESTROGEN ON MCF-7 HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELLS

Emily Giep and Aliyah Jamison

Dorman High School

Mentor: Neval Erturk, Converse College

 

With controversy surrounding hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, phytoestrogen has been used as an alternative to alleviate menopausal symptoms.  Due to its estrogenic properties, phytoestrogen’s usage has raised breast cancer concerns.  The purpose of this experiment was to observe how the growth of MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) breast cancer cells were affected by different concentrations of estrogen, phytoestrogen, and the combinations of both.  It was hypothesized that phytoestrogen would enhance estrogen’s stimulatory effect on cell growth of MCF-7 cells.  The MCF-7 cell samples, along with their designated concentrations of estrogen and phytoestrogen, were placed in the incubator for twenty-four hours, forty-eight hours, and seventy-two hours.  MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromidefor) salt and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were added at different time intervals.  The colorimetric readings were then taken using the Epoch BioTek Microplate reader.  The results showed that, at lower concentrations, phytoestrogen increased cell proliferation.  The effect of phytoestrogen on cell viability seemed to be opposite of the effect of estrogen alone.  The effect at seventy-two hours followed the normal trend of estrogen only at the E1 and phytoestrogen combination.  The rest of the combination doses for other estrogen concentrations were opposite of estrogen alone.  The overall effect of phytoestrogen and estrogen combinations are still unknown.  The unknown effect on circulating estrogen level on gene expression as well as the agonistic and antagonistic nature of phytoestrogen on the different estrogen receptors might be the explanation for not supporting the hypothesis that phytoestrogen enhances cell viability of MCF-7 cells.

 

 

EFFECTS OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM ON CELL MIGRATION

Alexander Giep

Dorman High School

Mentor: Neval Erturk, Converse College

 

Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) is a fungal supplement known for its therapeutic properties. In this project, we investigated the effects of water extracts of reishi on cell migration of MCF-7 breast epithelial cell line. MCF-7 cells were cultured to 90% confluence in 12 well plates. Two scratch wounds per well were created by using a needle at the appropriate time point. Uniform wound formation was confirmed under the microscope. At the appropriate time point cells were fixed and stained. Wound were images taken under a 10X objective and the wound closure quantified using ImageJ software. We observed that at 12 and 18 hour treatment period reishi prevented wound closure significantly (p <.05). We recommend further evaluation of the effects of reishi on cell migration and to further explore the molecular mechanisms involved.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS GOLF BALL TYPE ON DISTANCE TRAVELED

Spears Goodlett and Jackson Pringle

Heathwood Hall

 

In this experiment, the effect of the price and brand of golf balls were tested and it was determined whether specific brands would be needed to increase one’s success rate or total meters in one round of golf. A total of three people were included in the testing of this project, a bad player, a good player and an experienced player. Each player hit a total of 20 shots with each ball over the course of 2 testing days. The club used to hit the ball was selected as one of the most neutral clubs in the game of golf, the sand wedge. The club’s loft, or angle of the club’s face, was 54 degrees. The three subjects were selected specifically from their certain skill level and experience in the game of golf. It was determined if price and various golf ball brands factor into the total distance traveled in one shot. After reviewing the data it was determined that there was a variance but not enough to determine if it was significant to the ball.

 

 

THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE DISTANCE OF THE OBJECT FROM THE PLATE TO THE RESOLUTION AND DEPTH OF THE HOLOGRAM PRODUCED BY A HELIUM NEON LASER

Nikhil Gottipaty

Spring Valley High School

Mentor: Rao Gottipaty, Adelphi University

 

The purpose of this experiment was to create higher quality holograms without losing the depth of the image. The hypothesis was that if the distance of the object from the plate was increased then the depth would increase and the resolution would decrease. The setup was created using a Helium Neon laser, magnets, and a shiny red model of New York city. The object was placed 97cm away from the laser and the plate was balanced on the magnets at 95cm. The plate was in complete darkness, and after the plate was placed the table was left alone to stabilize for 5 minutes. After the 5 minutes were up the plate was exposed to the laser beam for 5 seconds. Then the plate was processed using a basic ascorbic acid and bleach process. The data were analyzed using a linear regression t test for the depth of the holograms were (t(2)=5.05, p=0.037, r2=.927, r=0.96) at an alpha value of 0.05. The p value is less than the alpha value of 0.05 so the data for this set is significant. The linear regression t test for the resolution of the holograms were (t(3)= -9.23, p= 0.0027, r2= 0.966, r= -0.983) at an alpha value of 0.05. Again the p value is less than the alpha value of 0.05, so the data for this experiment is also significant.

 

 

IMPROVING THE DESIGN OF PROSTHETIC VEINS

Alexandra Grant

Center for Advanced Technical Studies

 

Prosthetic veins are used to replaced damaged venous tissue when venous return is not equal to cardiac output. Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and varicose veins are two conditions where there is a great disparity between venous return and cardiac output due to damage to the venous tissue as well as the venous valves that prevent retrograde blood flow. Current prosthetic veins do not have valves in them, so the objective of this project was to design a prosthetic vein with valves in case doing so would help prolong graft life and vascular health in patients. In this project, a prosthetic venous valve was 3D printed using a flexible, porous filament. The prosthetic vein was then placed and secured in a prosthetic vein, which was tested using a peristaltic pump and evaluated through input-to-output ratios. The input of the system would be analogous to the cardiac output, and the output of the system would be analogous to venous return.

 

 

CONDUCTIVITY OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL CATHODE MATERIALS

Benjamin Gray

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Xiao-Dong Zhou, University of South Carolina Columbia

 

Fuel cells offer a clean and efficient method of generating electricity. However, current technology requires the use of hydrogen, a synthetically produced gas, as fuel. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells can use various fuels, including some hydrocarbons, more efficiently than any combustion cycle. However, current technology requires temperatures of over 800°C for electrochemical processes to advance with reasonable efficiency and speed, necessitating the use of relatively expensive materials in their construction. To reduce operating temperature, cathode performance must be improved, as it is currently a limiting factor. To do this, novel materials and syntheses must be researched. Praseodymium Nickelate (Pr2NiO4), has shown good performance in past investigations, so to verify those results, the electrical properties of the material were to be re-measured using resistance analysis. No reliable results were collected. Further work must be done to verify the experimental method.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF OFF-SEASON TRAINING ON ONE MILE RACE TIMES

Hannah Guess

Chapin High School

 

Several studies have been done to determine the effects of muscle training on the running economy of different types of runners. Overall, studies suggest that additional muscle training proves to be beneficial for running times.  This project answers the question: “Does additional off season muscle training improve speeds in one mile races?”. Fourteen runners participated in the study, which took place during the off season for high school track athletes. In a survey, athletes gave their mile race times from the 2016 season as well as the type of off season training they participated in: either muscle training or running training. Athletes then gave their mile race times for 2017 to determine the effect of different training methods. Final times were compared to initial times in a matched pairs t-test with categories based on whether athletes participated in running training or muscle training during the off season. Data showed that the P-Value of the effect of off season muscle training was 0.418, which is statistically insignificant. Although the hypothesis that off season muscle training would be beneficial for high school track athletes was proven incorrect, if a specific training regimen was instituted, the effects could become prove to be more beneficial for the runners.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF THE NUMBER OF TIMES THE BATTERY IS CHARGED ON HOW LONG THE CHARGE LASTS

Allison Hall

Heathwood Hall

 

The purpose of this experiment was to find out if the number of times a rechargeable battery is charged decreases the length of time the battery will hold its charge. It was hypothesized that if a rechargeable battery is charged multiple times the length of the time the charge will last will decrease. Eight rechargeable batteries were charged, for one hour and thirty minutes then tested to find the initial voltage. After finding the voltage the batteries were placed into one of four hair trimmers, to run down the charge. A camcorder was used to film the exact time the hair trimmers turned off. A timer was also started as a backup. After the batteries had fully run down, when the trimmers had fully shut off, the voltage was tested again, this was repeated five times with both sets of four batteries. The data showed that the length of charge decreases as the number of re-charges increase. Thus the data was conclusive, leading to a conclusion that rechargeable batteries lose charge as they recharge.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF ANTI-PHONE PSAS ON ADOLESCENTS’ PHONE USE AND ADDICTION

Wesley Hankinson

Spring Valley High School

 

Mobile phones have become a large part in today’s society and culture since their creation. They are so ingrained in society that one study found a sample of college students spend an average of 8.79 hours a day on their phone (Roberts, Petnji Yaya, & Manolis, 2014). While mobile phones have evolved to become very useful tools, this amount of usage has raised questions involving the average person’s dependence on their device and the problems associated with it. One element of mobile phones in today’s society is the ability to watch videos online, specifically on YouTube. Since YouTube is also accessible through most mobile phones, these PSAs could be used to help fight phone addiction, as they are likely to be seen by phone users. Therefore, The purpose behind this experiment was to help find an efficient and effective way of combating phone addiction. The data was collected through the MPPUS survey, and the t-test that was performed produced a p-value of 0.478, suggesting that there was no significant difference. Extra questions were added to the survey to collect further data on the thoughts of the adolescents during this process.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF POLYETHYLENE MICROBEADS DAPHNIA MAGNA

Sydney Hannibal

Spring Valley High School

 

Polyethylene is the most commonly use plastic in consumer products and is increasingly being used in the production of consumer products. Because polyethylene is used in products such as face wash and toothpaste, it ends up going down the drain and into the ocean. Due to their small size, nanoparticles could easily be consumed by aquatic animals. This project focuses on the toxicity of polyethylene plastic microbeads on the aquatic environment. The data tests were gathered by exposing the invertebrate Daphnia magna to different concentrations of the 50 micrometer polyethylene particles. It was hypothesized that if the amount of the polyethylene microbeads increased, then the Daphnia magna will die and the population and amount of Daphnia magna would decrease. The Daphnia magna were individually placed into containers filled each with 0.24 liters of water and the different concentrations of the polyethylene. 90 total of Daphnia magna were tested. 30 Daphnia magna were each exposed to 0.0000 grams of the polyethylene microbeads, 30 Daphnia magna were each exposed to 0.0005 grams of the polyethylene microbeads, and the last 30 Daphnia magna were each exposed to 0.0010 grams of polyethylene microbeads. The experimentation lasted for 11 days. After experimenting, it was concluded that the rates of death among the Daphnia magna were not significantly different. The results showed that death of the microorganisms were not widely different between the levels of concentrations, although there were more three more Daphnia magna organisms from the group that received none of the polyethylene microbeads that survived at the end of the 11 days, than the other two groups of Daphnia magna that did receive the polyethylene.

 

 

IROBOT ROOMBA AND ARDUINO AS AN ACCELERATED LEARNING PLATFORM FOR
INTERDISCIPLINARY PRINCIPLES

Chloe Harris

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Yongqiang Wang, Clemson University

 

Robotics is a field which highlights the importance of interdisciplinary work in STEM. It is important to be able to write efficient and readable code to accomplish a desired task, design hardware components so that they fit together in a way that allows the robot to operate effectively, and to be able to draw on other, more specialized fields of knowledge when necessary. Even at a basic level, some knowledge of software, mechanical, and electrical components is essential. Despite this, most introductory level courses in engineering and computer science fields are taught independently with relatively few courses existing where these skills are taught in conjunction. For students who intend to go into an interdisciplinary field such as robotics, it may prove beneficial to introduce interdisciplinary skills through interdisciplinary means rather than through independent courses. Over the course of my research, a group of students were taught both hardware and software elements simultaneously, with an emphasis on software. By the end of the research period, the students understood enough to create a basic robotic swarm and to troubleshoot the robots with minimal assistance from their mentors. All participating students entered the lab with minimal prior knowledge in these fields.

 

 

THE IMPACT OF INCREASED LANE MILEAGE ON TRAFFIC FATALITIES

Lauren Hawes

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Christopher Mothorpe, College of Charleston

 

The purpose of this research is to identify the correlation between road expansion and traffic fatalities. To understand this we used the 20 counties surrounding Atlanta as a case study into this problem. In order to do this we collected data from government sources about fatal accidents in this area as well as road expansion. The logic model and the binary system were used to determine the relationship between accidents and expansion. This model was used to determine a trend line for accidents and lane expansion. We found that there was a correlation between lane expansion and fatal accidents. It was not a strong correlation, but it did exist.

 

 

REDESIGNING THE CANINE WHEELCHAIR

Katherine Hayden

Center for Advanced Technical Studies

 

The most common issue from the traditional design of the canine wheelchair arises with the discomfort caused by the wheels. The wheel currently used on wheelchairs only allows for 2 degrees of freedom--forwards and backwards--and usually are bulky and oversized. This, therefore, evokes unsafe and unstable conditions for the dog by making it easy to overturn or get caught in corners. Although disabled dogs should not be left unattended whilst in the wheelchair, if they are and the cart overturns, it could potentially exacerbate the dog’s existing medical condition. By replacing the wheels on a canine wheelchair with ball casters, these problems are resolved. Ball casters allow for a more fluid, natural movement of the dog’s hips, allow movement in virtually every direction, and are functional on most surfaces since the ball is made of stainless steel. Key features also include a padded chassis for maximum comfort, chest and pelvic harnesses for support, and detachable stirrups for paralyzed (paraplegic) dogs.

 

 

THE DIFFERENCE IN AMOUNT OF ETHANOL PRODUCED BY PORTOBELLO AND SHIITAKE MUSHROOM CELLULOSE

Riley Haywood and Noah Schumacher

Heathwood Hall

 

Two common types of mushrooms, the Portobello and Shiitake mushrooms, were used to see which mushroom produced more cellulosic ethanol. The hypothesis was if the enzyme Cellobiase reacted with cellulose from Shiitake and Portobello mushrooms, then Portobello would produce more ethanol. The results of this study did support the hypothesis. In this study Portobello mushrooms produced almost 20 times more ethanol. A Bio Rad Labs Biofuel Enzyme Kit was used to measure the amount of p-Nitrophenol produced by these mushrooms. p-Nitrophenol was then used as an indicator of a proportional production of ethanol. This result means that there is a potential to use Portobello mushrooms to process cellulosic ethanol for possibly making fuel for vehicles in the future.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COLOR LIGHT AFFECT THE GROWTH OF PLANTS.

Wenlan He

Heathwood Hall

 

The purpose of this experiment was to find out how different color of lights affect the growth of plants. Six of different colors lights were set for the plants, and therefore the results would shows which light would produce the highest plants, which means let the plants absorbs the most lightning energy. The subjects used in this experiment were under the color gel, and let the subjects grew for a month, and compare the data on different height of the plants. The hypothesis of this experiment was, the plants under purple light would have the highest length in. The results of this experiment didn&rsquo;t support the hypothesis. In conclusion, this experiment will help the farmers, by using which light would make plants grew well.

 

 

THE EFFECTS OF ADDING DIVOTS TO THE HULL OF A BOAT ON ITS DRAG

John Heaton

Heathwood Hall

 

The purpose of this experiment is to identify the effects on the drag of a boat caused by adding small divots across the hull. This experiment was performed by having two boats made out of metal using the same proportions, one with small divots placed evenly across the hull and the other having a flat hull. These boats were then connected to a string that ran from the boat to a weighted pulley that would pull the connected boat through water. The amount of time it took for the weight to hit the ground was measured using a stopwatch. The speed of the weight falling would correlate to the speed of the boat moving through water. The faster the weight fell, the faster the boat traveled. The speed of the boat would be determined by how well it traveled through the water. This means that a boat with a lower drag would go faster than a boat with a higher drag. Although the ANOVA analysis of the data suggests variation between the two data sets, the difference was not enough to be considered statistically significant. Thus the results of the experiment support my null hypothesis, Adding Divots to the hull of a boat does not seem to decrease drag.

 

 

IDENTIFICATION OF ZEBRAFISH CARRYING THE ZMYM2 AND ZMYM3 MUTANT ALLELES

Samuel Helms

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: April Delaurier, University of South Carolina Aiken

 

Potocki Shaffer syndrome is a very rare disorder that occurs in humans. There are many side-effects of the disorder, but perhaps the most profound symptom is some form of craniofacial abnormality. Typical abnormalities in the skull structure are microcephaly, bracycephaly, and midfacial hypoplasia. These craniofacial abnormalities are caused by the haploinsufficiency of the PHF21A gene. This gene is similar to the zebrafish PHF21A ortholog. The research was done to create a generation of zebrafish that had the zmym2 or zmym3 mutant allele present. These two genes are known to be present in the phf21a complex where the PHF21A gene is located. This means that these two mutated alleles could be responsible for craniofacial abnormalities as well. This research was done by crossing zebrafish and then conducting a DNA extraction using their embryos. PCR was then used to amplify the DNA, and a T7E1 assay was run to see if the fish had the mutant allele. An F1 zebrafish carrying the zmym2 mutant allele was identified; however, an F1 zebrafish carrying the zmym3 mutant allele was not. This means that future research can create zebrafish that are heterozygous for the zmym2 mutant allele to see if there are any noticeable craniofacial abnormalities. If there are abnormalities, then this gene would be responsible for craniofacial development just as the PHF21A gene is.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF ULTRASOUND ON E.COLI DECONTAMINATION

Noah Hook

Spring Valley High School

 

Water pollution is an enormous problem in many third world countries and even in some first world countries. With many people living without fresh and clean water due to dangerous bacteria, there are new ideas emerging trying to decontaminate infected water. One of these ways is the use of ultrasonic waves, which are sound waves above 20,000 hertz. The purpose of this experiment was to test whether higher frequencies of ultrasound could more effectively kill E.coli. To test this, 15 beakers of water were inoculated with K-12 strain E.coli. Then each of the beakers was assigned a group, either 1, 2, or 3. Each group was exposed to a different frequency of ultrasound: group 1 was the control, group 2 was 1 megahertz, and group 3 was 3.3 megahertz. After exposure, 2 petri dishes were inoculated from each beaker, and the bacteria were allowed one day to grow. Bacteria were then counted in quadrant four and the data were recorded. The results showed that there was statistical significance when it came to group 3 by the use of an ANOVA (F(2,27)= 5.05, p=0.014) and a Tukey test. The p-value was shown to be 0.014, which is less than the alpha value of 0.05. This suggests significance; therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. In conclusion, the results suggest that the higher frequencies of ultrasound destroy bacteria more effectively than lower frequencies of ultrasound.

 

 

IMPACT OF ENVIORNMENTAL EDUCATION ON COMPOST LEVELS AND LANDFILL WASTE REDUCTION AT CHAPIN HIGH SCHOOL

Matt Hooker

Chapin High School

 

Food waste is a growing problem in the United States where roughly 40% of edible food is wasted annually in American homes. A majority of this waste is post-consumer because the producers are extremely efficient in affluent countries like the U.S. Many people don&rsquo;t know the implications of wasting food. The option of composting was not even an available in Chapin&rsquo;s cafeteria until this research began. This waste becomes a nutrient rich soil known as &ldquo;humus&rdquo; which is extremely effective for growing crops. This study introduced a composting option into the cafeteria and measured how the students composted daily over a two-week span. After these two weeks, an educational push was initiated which involved posters and videos to introduce the students to composting and the rules and benefits that it entails. The food waste was measured, in pounds, each day for several weeks after the educational push. The study found that an average of 5 pounds of food was composted before the educational push and 8 pounds of waste after. This research was statistically relevant and showed that students composted more waste after they were educated on the topic. Composting on the school level can drastically improve environmental preservation.

 

 

GENERATION OF A YEAST OVEREXPRESSION PLASMID FOR PURIFICATION OF THE IRON TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AFT2

Harrison Howell

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Caryn Outten, University of South Carolina Columbia

 

Iron is central in many essential intracellular processes, and as a result, balancing its level is crucial. Over two billion people suffer from iron deficiency, decreasing their overall health and leading to illnesses such as anemia. Conversely, too much iron can lead to diseases such as hemochromatosis. Understanding the molecular mechanics of iron homeostasis is the key to alleviating many of the diseases associated with improper iron regulation. Using the model eukaryote S. cerevisiae, many of the basic pathways in iron homeostasis have been uncovered. In yeast, iron absorption and accumulation is regulated by the Aft1 and Aft2 transcription factors that control the expression of the genes collectively termed the iron regulon. In low-iron conditions, the Aft2 factor activates gene expression to increase intracellular iron levels. To better understand the molecular mechanism used by Aft2 to regulate gene expression, attempts have been made to express and purify the full-length Aft2 protein in E. coli for biochemical analysis.  This problem was addressed through the successful construction of an expression vector containing the AFT2 full-length gene using the Gibson Assembly protocol. This new expression plasmid will allow the expression and purification of Aft2 directly from yeast. Large amounts of the purified protein will enable exploration of the DNA and iron-binding properties of this iron-responsive transcription factor at the molecular level.

 

 

THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADOLESCENT AMBLYOPIA AND THE PREDISPOSITION OF INTROVERSION OR EXTROVERSION IN A HIGH SCHOOL POPULATION

Bianca Huet

Chapin High School

 

Amblyopia is the medical term used when the vision in one of the eyes is reduced because the eye and the brain are not working together properly. The eye itself looks normal, but it is not being used normally because the brain is favoring the other eye. This condition is also sometimes called lazy eye. The National Eye Institute demonstrates that amblyopia is corrected most effectively at a younger, adolescent age,  affecting approximately 2 to 3 out of every 100 children, however there are a limited number of correction treatments for this condition. An observational survey was administered to a selection of randomized upperclassmen at a selected high school in order to identify whether there is an association between the specified personality traits of introversion and extraversion and a previous condition of amblyopia diagnosed as an adolescent. Overall, the majority of students with previous conditions of amblyopia unexpectedly had extroverted tendencies, but an association nonetheless. The study being conducted will demonstrate a newfound importance in that it will shine light on how the condition of amblyopia, and even further what correctional treatment a patient receives, affects the personality traits of patients with a current or previous condition of it. This will further illustrate in what direction correctional treatments should take. The study proves an association between the two, and this project was prompted in hopes that researchers will have a better idea of the long-term impact of the condition of amblyopia and its prescribed correctional treatment.

 

 

HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE WITH PERSISTENT MICELLE TEMPLATE (PMT)

Jamaal Jacobs

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Morgan Stefik, University of South Carolina Columbia

 

Polymers with both a hydrophobic (repelled by water) and hydrophilic (attracted to water) ends form spheres known as micelles whenever introduced with water. Each polymer has an optimal micelle size that gives the polymer a wide range of properties. These properties range from being more bendable to being more elastic. This experiment used Poly-ethylene oxide-block-hexyl acrylate with the hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends in order to find its micelle size, which was done by adding multiple amounts of water and agitating the samples at different intervals. This experiment found that the micelle size of the polymer Poly-ethylene oxide-block-hexyl acrylate had a micelle size between 10 and 1000 nanometers, and that the micelle size can be found by adding some value between 20 and 100 microliters of hydrochloric acid.

 

 

A NOVEL APPROACH IN THE EXTRACT OF MELALEUCA ALTERNIFOLIA AS A POTENTIAL TOPICAL TREATMENT OF CUTANEOUS ASPERGILLUS USTUS INFECTIONS

Isak Jatoi

Spring Valley High School

 

Primary cutaneous aspergillosis (PCA) is a serious concern for immunocompromised patients, with poor prognosis and high rates of dissemination and recurrence. The current treatment methods for PCA, surgical debridement and systemic antifungal therapy, are often ineffective, even when used in conjunction with one another. Infections by Aspergillus ustus are particularly threatening, as A. ustus is resistant to many currently used antifungals. Tea tree oil (TTO) is a natural extract from the Australian shrub Melaleuca alternifolia, and a large body of evidence supports its antimicrobial activity. As such, TTO was tested in vitro as a potential antifungal agent against A. ustus. A broth microdilution assay was conducted for 48 hours using the concentration range of 0.25% to 16% TTO, along with positive growth and negative growth controls, in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Afterwards, a spectrophotometric time-kill assay was conducted using the MIC, 2 x MIC, and 0.5 MIC values, with aliquots of the TTO solutions taken at 0, 24, and 48 hours. The MIC was determined at 4% TTO from the broth microdilution assay, with a Kruskal-Wallis test displaying statistical significance, X2 (8, N = 8) = 60.375, p < 0.0001. Additionally, a post hoc Dunn test found a significant difference between 4% TTO and the positive growth control (p = 0.001). The time-kill assay exhibited a decline in optical density for the 8% TTO between 0 and 48 hours. However, the 2% and 4% TTO solutions displayed a resurgence in growth after an initial decrease in optical density at 24 hours. Overall, the results demonstrated antifungal efficacy of TTO, while also indicating that TTO loses potency after prolonged periods of use at lower concentrations. These results and others further warrant the use of TTO as a topical agent for PCA.

 

 

THE EFFECTS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ON THE PRODUCTION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN MCF-7 CELLS

Sunjay Jayaram

Dutch Fork High School

Mentor: Samir Raychoudhury, Benedict College

 

PAHs are compounds that are toxic to human beings that is found in soot, tar mineral oils and many other places in the environment. An abundance of research has been conducted on PAHs as potent carcinogens for many types of cancers. The subject of this study is how PAHs react in comparison to other chemicals (Tamoxifen and Estradiol) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The experiments conducted involve the effect of high and low doses of PAHs in relation to the MCF-7 cell line of breast cancer cells. These doses will be compared in relation to both controls as well as Tamoxifen, a competitive inhibitor to estrogen receptors in MCF-7.  If a cell is damaged, it will release lactate dehydrogenase, so this will be the dependent variable to measure cell damage.  The hypothesis is that when the high and low doses of PAH are exposed to MCF-7 cells, they will release higher amounts of LDH as opposed to Tamoxifen and the controls tested.

 

 

SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF D-AMINO ACID SUBSTITUTED CYCLIC PEPTIDE INHIBITORS OF LYSINE SPECIFIC DEMETHYLASE 1

Tyreek Jenkins

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Patrick Woster, Medical University of South Carolina

 

Lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is an enzyme that removes methyl groups from mono- and dimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4), resulting in gene silencing. LSD1 became a valid cancer target because its overexpression has been observed in various human cancers and correlated with aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes. To date, a handful of small molecule—and peptide based—inhibitors mimicking the structure of the natural substrate (H3K4) displayed good in vitro inhibition activity toward LSD1. The present project has the aim of synthesizing, using the standard N-(9-Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-O-tert-butyl) (Fmoc/t-Bu) solid phase peptide synthesis procedure and evaluating the biological activity, using the Cell Titer 96® Aqueous One Cell Proliferation Assay, in which each L-amino acid is replaced by its stereoisomer D-amino acid. This approach is based on the fact that D-amino acids can stabilize certain reverse β-turns or destabilize α-helices, thus, providing insights about how a conformational constraint in the peptide affects the binding affinity toward the LSD1 enzyme. Specifically, the derivative is a cyclic peptide where the L-proline (Pro16 in the sequence) was replaced by D-proline. By replacing L-proline with D-proline, it is expected to identify the conformational features of the cyclic peptide that affect the in vitro LSD1 inhibition activity and the antitumor activity on cancer cell lines. The D-proline peptide showed a 38.1% growth inhibition on human anaplastic carcinoma cell lines at a concentration of 5mM, which indicated low antitumor activity. Future work include synthesis and evaluation of additional D-amino acid analogues along the peptide sequence.

 

 

EXPLORING POSSIBILITIES OF AN ADAPTIVE NEBULIZER SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED AND EFFICIENT AEROSOL THERAPY: A COMPREHENSIVE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

Ishita Kapoor

Spring Valley High School

 

Aerosol therapy is the most common respiratory treatment for lung related diseases, where the drug is atomized to micro particle size allowing it to reach different areas of the respiratory tract. Many delivery devices exist, but nebulizers, despite their low efficiency (<20%), are still the most common method of delivering medication to children or patients in critical care. The most common respiratory therapy standard has set guidelines that when the nebulizer sputters, it marks the end of treatment, not realizing that sputtering is a result of many external factors in nebulizer and leads to wasted drug and high cost. This research is aimed at delaying the start of sputtering thereby improving consistency in nebulization for effective aerosol treatment and creating an adaptive timed drug delivery system. Modifications included the addition of a baffle and creating hydrophobic surface of nebulizer interior walls, when tested with 3cc Sodium Chloride solution showed a statistically significantly difference in delaying sputtering time thereby improving nebulizer consistency and lowering residual volume F(12,52)=135.75, p <0.001 as compared to unmodified nebulizer. The second part of this project validated the concept of dynamic nebulization by creating a prototype using ultrafast sensors that control the aerosol generation only during inhalation. This concept is also able to provide quantifiable data on tidal volume of breathing cycle and effective treatment breaths. Ultra-fast sensors that were used in this prototype leads to the possibilities of shifting from current and inaccurate aerosol therapy standard measured as treatment time to a more accurate and quantifiable standard - number of breaths, while decreasing the treatment cost. As a next step, possibility of commercialization will be explored under guidance from Medical University of South Carolina.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF CORROSION ON THE ANTIBACTERIAL ABILITY OF COPPER, BRASS, ALUMINUM, AND STAINLESS, STEEL

Garrett Kaufman

Spring Valley High School

 

Due to an increase in antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria, new methods for killing bacteria without the use of antibiotics and caustic chemicals are being sought out. Research has shown that some metals can be used as a way to kill bacteria on contact. This experiment was designed to see how well copper, brass, aluminum, and stainless steel were able to kill bacteria after acid corrosion. This was intended to mimic extended contact with human sweat from handling. It was hypothesized that metal subjected to corrosion would be less effective against bacteria than metal that had not been corroded. Twenty metal squares of each metal type were used measuring 0.635cm on each side. Half of each group was randomly selected for corrosion. Afterwards, all metal squares were randomly assigned to 16 petri dishes with 5 squares per petri dish, and each dish was covered in E. coli. After 48 hours of incubation at 37o C, the zones of inhibition around the metal squares were measured. The results were analyzed with an ANOVA at alpha equal to 0.05. This ANOVA (F (7,67)= 2.22, p=0.044) showed that the results were significant, but a Scheffe test was not powerful enough to determine with certainty the locations of these differences. Based on the values gathered from the Scheffe test it can be concluded that the hypothesis was not supported. The biggest differences shown in this test indicate that corrosion generally increases antibacterial ability of the metals tested with the exception of copper.

 

 

THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS UTILIZING A COOLER

Joshua Keller

Center for Advanced Technical Studies

 

The battery life of a typical cellular phone tends to decrease rapidly when exposed to extreme temperatures. In these situations of extreme temperature, a power source simply may not be available. If a cooler can be modified to provide constant power based on the temperature differential inside and outside the cooler,  then a phone or other small electronic device can be charged and extend user battery life. By placing 6 Thermoelectric Generators on the surface of the cooler a dramatic temperature gradient will allow energy to be produced (via the Seebeck Effect). The dimensions of the Thermoelectric Generators are to be cut into the cooler followed by placing the Thermoelectric Generators into the cut-out areas and securing the devices. The wires from the Thermoelectric Generators will be connected in series on the outside of the cooler with wire nuts. The results to date have shown that the Thermoelectric Generators produced a consistent amount of power or DC voltage. The data collected showed that a more efficient Thermoelectric Generator will be needed to charge a portable phone. This newly developed product has many practical applications and could be used in a beach or pool setting whereby creating a mobile power source in the absence accessible power. After initial prototype development, a secondary goal is to power a cooling fan in a cooler to make the cooler stay cold for extended periods of time without addition of ice.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS TYPES OF DISTRACTIONS IN A TESTING ENVIRONMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACADEMIC TASKS

Gloria Kim

Spring Valley High School

 

With the invention of smartphones and mass media, distractions are becoming more prevalent in students’ lives more than ever. Students believe they can multitask between engagement in social media and academics. However, this results in their academics suffering negative repercussions. Findings from this study could emphasize the importance of limiting distractions in work environments and could determine what types of distractions should be avoided depending on the academic work. It was hypothesized that text messaging would have the greatest impact on test scores, especially those in mathematics. Subjects were randomly distributed into one of three academic tasks (SAT Reading, SAT Math, and SAT Vocabulary) and performed their designated task in five types of testing environments: no distraction, music (without lyrics), music (with lyrics), text messaging, and Internet/social media. Responses were scored using the corresponding answer keys and were compared. At α = 0.05, the three ANOVA tests for each academic task indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the scores of each testing environment for any subject, (F(4,45) = 1.2326, p = 0.3106), (F(4,45) = 0.5453, p = 0.7033), and (F(4,45) = 0.3152, p = 0.8663). Therefore, the hypothesis was not supported. In conclusion, the impact of text messaging on academic performance is no greater than the impact of other distractions such as music and social media.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF POLYINOSINIC:POLYCYTIDILIC ACID ON THE HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL CYCLE

David Kindervater

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Andreas Trumpp, German Cancer Research Center

 

Interferon treatment has become a well-established form of therapy, in collaboration with chemotherapy and radiation, in the treatment of numerous cancers.  Interferon is a signaling protein which, when secreted, stimulates the cycling of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs), leading to the generation of immune cells capable of attacking tumors and metastatic niches.  Interferon is secreted by host cells in the presence of pathogens, including viruses and tumor cells. But Interferon treatment is accompanied by numerous side effects.  The aim of this project is to test Polyinosinic:polycytidilic acid (poly(I:C)), a synthetic double-stranded RNA, as an alternative to interferon treatment.  Mice were given mammary fat pad injections of EYFP-tagged MDA-MB-231 carcinoma cells, and monitored for bioluminescence until well-developed metastases were observed in the lungs.  The mice were then injected with 200 μL of poly(I:C), and sacrificed after 24 hours.  Bone marrow, blood, and lungs were extracted for immunofluorescence staining and Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorting (FACs) analysis.  FACs analysis results indicated that mice with immune deficiencies showed drastic increases in the number of differentiated immune cells and HSCs in the latter stages of the cell cycle (SG2M) when treated with poly(I:C), supporting previous research on poly(I:C) and its effect in mouse models.

 

 

METHANE PRODUCTION FROM MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS

Zachary Kochert

Center for Advanced Technical Studies

 

This project is being conducted to determine whether or not a Microbial Fuel Cell and a Methane digester can be combined into one unit in an efficient manner. If a Microbial Fuel Cell and a Methane digester can be combined into a single unit then more energy can be gathered from one source. Methods for researching this idea are first designing a unit that makes it easy to change different variables. This will make it possible for me to find the specific settings that generate the most methane and the most voltage with the same fuel. So far this has been accomplished by first making a fuel that is near to a 30:1 carbon to nitrogen ratio then pouring that in around an anode and a cathode. Then the unit is sealed so that it will begin to generate methane which is stored in a separate connected container. Once the methane has stopped being created the unit is opened up so that electricity can be generated. The result of this process is that methane is generated when the unit is sealed and electricity is generated when the unit is open. So far in the project the methane production is low but the electricity production is average or high. So far in this project it has been proven that Microbial Fuel Cells and Methane Digesters can be combined into one unit. This shows that methane and electricity can be generated from one unit and with one fuel.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF ZEOLITES ON THE PERCENT TRANSMITTANCE OF LEAD CONTAMINATED WATER

Christopher Kong

Spring Valley High School

 

Throughout the past 50 years, water contamination has negatively affected the environment and its organisms. Heavy metals, such as lead, are one of the most common contaminants of water. Research was conducted to find a potential solution to treating lead contaminated water using zeolites: an aluminosilicate, crystalline structure. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if using larger amounts of zeolites would treat and purify the lead contaminated water more effectively than in smaller amounts. It was hypothesized that as the amount of zeolite increases, the percent transmittance would increase for the post-treated solution. Treatment was carried out by pouring a lead contaminated solution, composed of distilled water and lead (II) oxide, through different masses of zeolites which was then tested afterwards to measure the treatment’s effectiveness. A one-way ANOVA at = 0.05 found that control group (n = 30, M = 63.29% SD = 12.63%), the 1.00 g (n = 30, M = 84.36%, SD = 9.53%), the 1.75 g (n = 30, M = 88.00% , SD = 6.71%), and the 2.50 g (n = 30, M = 90.78%, SD = 12.66%) were statistically significantly different (F(3,116) = 41.10, p = <0.001). A post-hoc Tukey test indicated that the test values for the 1.00 g (n = 30, M = 84.36%, SD = 9.53%), the 1.75 g (n = 30, M = 88.00% , SD = 6.71%), and the 2.50 g (n = 30, M = 90.78%, SD = 12.66%) all had statistically significant differences to the control group (n = 30, M = 63.29% SD = 12.63%), the 1.00 g (n = 30, M = 84.36%, SD = 9.53%). The hypothesis was not supported; as the data indicated that there were statically insignificant differences between the experimental groups excluding the control. However, the data does indicate that zeolites are an effective method in treating lead contaminated water.

 

 

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION BETWEEN 1990 AND 2014

Johnathan Kovarna

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Chandini Sankaran, University of South Carolina Columbia

 

Creating a strong economy and increasing social well-being are important primary steps in forming a good country.  A country with a strong economy and a good level of social well-being can shift their focus onto other issues that affect certain groups within the country.  Because of this, it is important that we discover how to help countries make their economies strong, which we can do by observing how countries with weaker economies grow and develop.  This research project looks at the economic growth and development of the Russian Federation from 1990 to 2014, to see how they have developed, and later research will focus on the policies that led to this growth.  Data was collected from the World Bank Organization, and then graphed to see how certain statistics have changed between 1990 and 2014.  Research has concluded that Russia has developed a strong economy since 1990, and has greatly increased some important factors for quality of life for its citizens.  Since Russia has been determined to have developed a strong economy, further research must be done to determine what policies and reforms led to this, so that they may be implemented in other countries that have a weak or unstable economy.

 

 

A COMPARISON OF THE TOTAL POLYPHENOLS IN DAUCUS CAROTA, CYANOCOCCUS, CITRUS SINENSIS, CITRUS LIMON, ACTINIDIA DELICIOSA, AND MANGIFERA INDICA

Vikram Kumar

Spring Valley High School

 

Degenerative diseases, as well as bacterial infections are caused by oxidative stress, and are a huge problem in the world. Antioxidants are needed to safely balance the harmful effects of free radicals without causing any damage to the body. Bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols and polyphenol derivatives, have powerful antioxidative abilities and can treat and prevent degenerative diseases. Many common edible plants, such as carrot, blueberry, lemon, kiwi, orange, and mango contain polyphenols. Polyphenols can measured by creating an aqueous extract. This can be done by boiling down each fruit or vegetable in water. 5 mL of the resulting extract were mixed with 5 mL of Folin-Denis reagent and heated on a hot plate for a minute. The resulting solution was transferred into a cuvette and placed into a spectrovis that was calibrated to a blank of Folin-Denis reagent. The extracts were measured for absorbance at a wavelength of 450 nm to determine relative polyphenol levels. An ANOVA test at alpha = 0.05 (F(5)=118.651, p = > 0.001) was used to test the significance of the results. Since the ANOVA test returned a p-value of less than 0.001, the data is significant because 0.001 is less than the alpha value. This means the null hypothesis that there is no difference between the extracts is rejected, as there was significant differences in the polyphenol levels. The hypothesis that the darkest colored extract, in this case blueberry, would have the highest level of polyphenols was also supported by the data.

 

 

EXPOSURE RESPONSE AND NOISE IN A DIGITAL IMAGING SYSTEM

Caitlin Kunchur

Dutch Fork High School

 

Pictures represent scenes by recording different values of brightness and color at different locations. A digital camera has a sensor with many pixels. Each pixel has stored electric charge that leaks out through a photodiode when light falls onto it. The amount of leaked charge indicates the exposure which corresponds to the amount of light energy that hit the pixel. Variations in exposure for the same light energy represent noise. Besides the scene's luminance (brightness), exposure and noise depend on the camera settings of shutter speed, aperture, ISO, and resolution (megapixels). The first experiment’s goal was to see how accurate the proportionality between the exposure and light energy was. The second experiment’s goal was to test the principle of reciprocity which states that the same exposure can be achieved with different combinations of shutter speed and aperture as long as the same light energy is maintained. The third experiment’s goal was to see how noise is affected with an increase in ISO. The last experiment’s goal was to see how noise is affected with changes in resolution. The experiments used a Canon digital camera and a software called GetRGB which extracts the RGB values for every pixel in the picture. For each color value, the mean and standard deviation were calculated for all the pixels which reflected the exposure and the noise respectively. The following conclusions were found:  1) Even this basic digital camera proved to have a more linear exposure response and reciprocity than typical film. 2) As expected, the noise increased with ISO due to a higher amplification for a smaller amount of charge. 3) As expected, a decrease in the number of pixels resulted in less noise due to the merging of pixels and consequently more collected light energy and fractionally less variations. This contradicts the common misconception that more pixels are always better.

 

 

RAPID PROTOTYPING OF COMPACT BONE OSTEONS

Faisal Lachab

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Esmaiel Jabbari, University of South Carolina Columbia

 

In the United States alone, there are 6.3 million bone fractures per year. The healing process can take weeks and even months after surgery. Therefore, synthetic bone can be used as a replacement until recovery of the damaged bone. Compact bone is primarily made of osteons, and hydroxyapatite is a paste that mimics real bone material. The aim of this project was to fully develop a synthetic osteon prototype from hydroxyapatite that could be produced efficiently while still retaining the properties of a functional bone. This osteon model would have to be biocompatible and osteoconductive with high tensile strength. First, a model of an osteon had to be designed in Fusion 360 and sent to the 3D printer. This step was followed by synthesis of paste-like hydroxyapatite, which was press-injected into the osteon mold and burned off to leave just the intact osteon made of hydroxyapatite and subjected to various temperatures to determine the ideal combination for the best osteon. Results indicated that the best osteon was produced when the mold was subjected to 325°F for 1 hour, followed by 425°F for 2 hours, and 475°F for 1 hour. In the future, tests would have to be performed on the rapidly produced osteons in order to ensure their strength, and degradation rates, since the synthetic osteon is only supposed to last long enough to allow for the new bone to grow in its place.

 

 

THE POLYMERIZATION OF N-VINYLPYRROLIDONE IN PHENYLETHYLENE BIS-UREA MACROCYCLES

Julia Ladson

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Linda Shimizu, University of South Carolina Columbia

 

New ways to polymerize the monomer n-Vinylpyrrolidone in a Phenylethylene Bis-urea macrocycle were investigated. The goal was to shine ultraviolet light on it to activate it, therefore initializing the polymerization process. The polymerization of n-Vinylpyrrolidone has been done before, but not in this macrocycle vessel, and with hydrogen peroxide as an initiator to start the polymerization process. Because the monomer in use is commonly used in food agents, I didn’t want to use hydrogen peroxide, an oxidizer, in it. They are dangerous for the human body. We decided to use ultraviolet light instead. We tried three different processes to load n-Vinylpyrrolidone in the macrocycle. For the first process, we made a solution of N-Vinylpyrrolidone and acetonitrile in a container. Then we put Phenylethylene crystals in. That soaked for 5 hours. We took a TGA and UV vis of the crystals and it loaded at 75%. Next, we used a more direct loading. n-Vinylpyrrolidone was put in the macrocycle. We shined light on it and let it soak for 6 hours. We ran a TGA of the crystals and found it loaded at 50%. It didn’t load well, because the solvent used in filtering dissolved some of the monomer out of the macrocycle. Lastly, we used direct loading. We put n-Vinylpyrrolidone in the macrocycle, and shined light on it. It sat for 8 hours, filtered, and we took a TGA and UV vis of it. The macrocycle consumed all of the monomer, and the monomer became a polymer.

 

 

UPPER BOUND ON THE BURNING NUMBER OF GRAPHS

Max Land

Dutch Fork High School

Mentor: Linyuan Lu, University of South Carolina Columbia

 

The burning number of a graph was introduced by Bonato-Janssen-Roshanbin [Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8882 (2014)]. It is used to model the spread of contagion processes over contact networks. For example, many graphs are used to model social connections on facebook or a population of trees in the wilderness. The burning number of a graph would estimate the amount of time it would take information to travel among facebook friends, or the time it would take for a virus to infect an entire population of trees.

In their paper, Bonato-Janssen-Roshanbin considered a graph process which they called burning. At the beginning of the process, all vertices of a graph are unburned. During each round, one may choose an unburned vertex and change its status to burned. At the same time, each of the vertices that are already burned, will remain burned and spread to all of its neighbors and change their status to burned. A graph is called k-burnable if it can be burned in at most k steps. The burning number of a graph G, denoted by b(G), is the minimum number of rounds necessary to burn all vertices of the graph. They conjectured the burning number of any connected graph G on n vertices is at most the square root of n, denoted by sqrt(n). The previously best known upper bound was roughly 1.298*sqrt(n). In this paper, we improved the upper bound to roughly 1.225*sqrt(n) by a novel method of induction.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF MUSIC GENRE AND VOLUME ON A PERSON'S HEART RATE AND REACTION TIME

Julia Lauterbach and Kate Willhide

Heathwood Hall

 

In this research project, the effect of music genre and volume on a person's heart rate and reaction time were examined on 24 driving age participants. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effect of music on a driver's ability to stay focused. It was hypothesized that higher volumes and more intense music would lead to increased heart rates and reaction times. The students performed three trials on each subject, over a span of a couple days, with the same genre of music so that all trials could be averaged and analyzed using an ANOVA test. Three different volumes were tested with a different song used for each volume to see if any changes would occur in heart rate or reaction time. The researchers found that in the pop genre there was no significant difference in heart rate between volumes, however, there was a statistically significant difference in reaction time. There was no statistically significant difference in heart rate between volumes, or reaction times when reviewing the data from the Hard Rock subjects. Concerning the classical genre, there was no statistically significant difference in heart rate between volumes or in reaction time, though the numbers follow the same trend as pop and hard rock. In conclusion, the researcher&rsquo;s hypothesis was not fully supported for all genres and volumes. In most cases, the heart rate of the test subjects did not increase with volume or a more intense genre.

 

 

A NEW MOUSE MODEL OF HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER DRIVEN BY MYC OVEREXPRESSION AND PTEN LOSS

Brantley Leaphart

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Charles  Bieberich , University ff Maryland Baltimore County

 

Most forms of prostate cancer depend on the presence of androgen, a class of male hormones, which binds to androgen receptors located on the surface of the prostate cells to support growth. Androgen-independent prostate cancer occurs after the disease has progressed such that it no longer relies on the presence of androgen, thereby making traditional treatments, including hormone deprivation therapy, ineffective. The goal of this project was to determine the in vivo growth characteristics of two newly-derived androgen independent mouse prostate cancer cell lines developed from a genetically engineered mouse model. Clonal cell lines from liver and lymph node metastatic sites in the BMPC mouse prostate cancer model (FVB/N background) were injected subcutaneously into athymic nude mice (Balb/c background) and FVB/N mice. Growth curves of xenograft tumors located in the immunocompromised athymic nude mice and FVB/N mice were determined by daily measurements of tumor size. The study showed that the cell line derived from the liver metastasis produced xenograft tumors in the athymic nude mice, as well as allograft tumors in the FVB mice. These data suggest that allografts of metastatic BMPC cell lines grown in immunocompetent FVB mice are a viable option for pre-clinical trials of treatments for androgen independent prostate cancer.

 

 

THE EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN ON THE GROWTH OF LEMNA MINOR

Isaac Lee

Spring Valley High School

 

Acid rain is a growing problem with the continued industrialization of the better part of the world, especially in countries with little to no environmental regulation. The unnatural acidity can kill off local flora and as a result, disrupt the surrounding ecology. The purpose of the study is to study the interaction of different pH’s of simulated acid rain with Lemna minor, and see how increased pHs affect and damage duckweed. The hypothesis was that the 4.0 pH simulated acid rain would be the most damaging to the duckweed. Varying pH’s of simulated acid rain, which contained a 7:3 mix of nitric and sulfuric acid were added to an environment which contained duckweed. The amount of growth was measured for the duckweed as a way to gauge the sustainability of an aquatic environment after a spike in acidity. The mean differences of each treatment was analyzed using ANOVA at alpha = 0.05 level. There was statistical differences among the treatments at F(4, 34) = 6.46, p = 0.001. Results also indicated that the 4.0 pH treatment was the most damaging.

 

 

VERIFYING HIGH-THROUGHPUT METHODS FOR DETERMINING MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF UV CURED POLYMERS

Top Lee

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Jason Hattrick-Simpers, University of South Carolina Columbia

 

The focus of this research is to create and test a high-throughput method for tensile-testing a large number of polymer samples cured with ultraviolet (UV) light. The method creates 27 separate tensile samples in a short amount of time relative to other known methods of tensile testing. Full trays of 27 thiol-ene polymer samples were synthesized by reacting Trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercatopropionate) with Trimethylolpropane triacrylate, and a photo initiator, 2,2-Dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone. The hypothesis for this research was that each sample could have a different variable while keeping the same statistical validity across each one. Individually, each of the samples does not have enough statistical validity to create 27 different tensile samples. When merged into groups of five or six based on location on a Teflon tray, standard deviation is 7% instead of over 100% when compared individually. Creating trays of polymers to be used in tandem with high-throughput tensile testing methods immensely sped up the tensile testing process for polymers. Future direction for this research is to combine it with automated systems to create the trays autonomously and more quickly.

 

 

THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTS CONTAINING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS, COLGATE TOTAL®, MICROBEADS, AND BPA, ON THE REGENERATIVE ABILITIES OF DUGESIA IIGRINA

Cynthia Leonard

Spring Valley High School

 

Endocrine disruptors are found within several products which are prominent in everyday society, such as hard plastics, cosmetics, and personal care items such as toothpastes. The purpose of this research is to demonstrate how the endocrine disruptor containing products, BPA, Microbeads, and Colgate Total® affect the total regenerated lengths of Dugesia Tigrina, which could relate to the healing of damaged tissues within humans while being exposed to various products containing endocrine disruptors. It was hypothesised that the powdered form of BPA would hinder the Planarian Flatworms’ total time of complete regeneration the most and  that the endocrine disruptor within the Colgate Total® Toothpaste would have the least effect. A ppm solution was made for each endocrine disruptor containing product and were filled halfway into the assigned petri dishes, three dishes per group with a total of four groups, making twelve dishes total. Each planaria was cut halfway and the lengths were recorded after two weeks. The regenerated lengths were calculated and it was shown that there was a significant difference between means at F(3,77) = 3.74, p < 0.05 A Post-hoc Tukey test determined that there were significant differences between the control and the BPA and the control and the Colgate Total®, which showed that both hypotheses were not supported. This meant that the BPA group did not have significantly the most hindering and that the Colgate Total® did not have significantly the least hindering overall.

 

 

FECAL SOURCE TRACKING AT LITTLE CANE CREEK AND CANE CREEK

Ivey Li

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Barbara Campbell, Clemson University

 

I used fecal source tracking methods to help the Friends of Lake Keowee Society (FOLKS) evaluate the sources of fecal contamination in Lake Keowee so they can take measures to reduce the levels of bacterial contamination. The presence of the bacteria was confirmed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR); the samples were taken from Sites 10 and 11, Little Cane Creek and Cane Creek. We evaluated the presence of beaver, cow/deer, horse, human, and pig fecal contamination. The PCR results indicate fecal contamination from beavers and cows/deer at both sites. There were not significant levels of fecal contamination from horses, humans, or pigs at Little Cane Creek or Cane Creek.

 

 

CAPABILITY OF COLLABORATIVE ROBOTS IN AN INDUSTRIAL PROCESS

Weston Light

Governor’s School for Science & Mathematics

Mentor: Dan Askins, Integrated Systems Incorporated

 

The purpose of this project was to test the effectiveness of collaborative robots in an industrial process working with humans. We tested one of the very first dual armed collaborative robots called the YuMi made by ABB, a company that builds robots for industrialization. The YuMi is considered collaborative because it is designed to control and minimize collisions that could possibly cause harm to the robot and to the person working with it. The project was a case study funded by Kaydon Bearings and was intended to have the YuMi robot assemble bearings with the help of a person. The project began by video analyzing these processes in which the bearings were assembled by hand. The tasks that were categorized as dull, dangerous, or repetitive were designated as tasks for the robot. A key component to the project were the constant tests and trial runs that were required. Parts of the assembly were created in SolidWorks and constructed in the machine shop. We also had to add certain materials that were used in the initial process. Trial and error was used many times in order to create a solution that was acceptable for industrial use. This project will promote increased use of collaborative robots and prove that they are acceptable and even preferable in some industrial processes. As a result of this, people will not only become educated on robots and their applications, but they may work with robots instead of losing their jobs to one.